This information was produced by the staff of the Belin-Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development (B-BC) at the University of Iowa (belinblank.org). The resources and information listed here are for informational purposes; there is no direct or implied endorsement by the B-BC. Services provided by the B-BC include programs for academically talented K-12 and college students, professional development for teachers, the Assessment and Counseling Clinic, the Acceleration Institute (accelerationinstitute.org), and graduate programs and research in gifted education.

printPrinting

Our pages are formatted to be printer-friendly. Simply click and print.

Twitter YouTube FacebookWordPress

Annotated Bibliography

Articles are listed in descending order by year (most recent first), and then by first author's last name.

Diverse Populations

Hertberg-Davis, H., Williams, B., & Callahan, C. M. (2010). Pathways to success for African American students in Advanced Placement courses. In N. Colangelo, S. Assouline, D. Lohman, & M. A. Marron (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2008 Wallace Symposium poster session on academic acceleration. Iowa City, IA: The University of Iowa.

The full proceedings are available here.

Lee, S. Y., Olszewski-Kubilius, P., Peternel, G. (2010). The efficacy of academic acceleration for gifted minority students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 54(3), 189-208.

This study supported the use of acceleration for gifted minority students in math. The gifted minority students in this study viewed taking accelerated math courses as exciting and beneficial for preparation for high school and college and particularly liked the challenges they encountered while taking advanced classes. They enjoyed working ahead and having a "leg up" in school, and were infused with a special feeling of being gifted and talented in taking accelerated math. Ethnicity was not a major factor for teachers' support for acceleration. The teachers believed that acceleration provides necessary challenges for students, makes them committed to schoolwork, and enhances their academic achievement. No negative peer pressure resulting from academic acceleration was found, though the teachers were more certain than the students about the existence of negative peer culture for gifted minority students.

Baldus, C., Assouline, S., Croft, L., & Colangelo, N. (2009). The Iowa Online Advanced Placement Academy: Creating access to excellence for gifted and talented rural students. In L. Shavinina (Ed.), International Handbook on Giftedness (pp. 1225-1234). Amsterdam: Springer Science and Business Media.

This chapter highlights the success of the Iowa Online Advanced Placement Academy (IOAPA) and related programs. The program itself aims to increase access to AP courses and exams, and does so by providing online AP courses and in-school support for high school students, preparing rural junior high/middle school students for AP coursework through the Iowa Excellence Program, and aiding teachers in encouraging and preparing students to seek out and succeed in highly challenging coursework, such as AP.

Wyner, J. S., Bridgeland, J. M., & Diiulio, J. J., Jr. (2007). Achievement trap: How America is failing millions of high-achieving students from lower-income families. Lansdowne, VA: Jack Kent Cooke Foundation.

Today in America, there are millions of students who are overcoming challenging socioeconomic circumstances to excel academically. Sadly, these students lose more educational ground and excel less frequently than their higherincome peers. Instead of being recognized for their excellence and encouraged to strengthen their achievement, high-achieving lower-income students enter the "achievement trap" - educators, policymakers, and the public assume they can fend for themselves when the facts show otherwise.

The full report can be found here.

Lerner, J. B., & Brand, B. (2006). The college ladder: Linking secondary and postsecondary education for success for all students. Washington, D.C.: American Youth Policy Forum.

The purpose of this report was to identify, summarize, and analyze schools, programs, and policies linking secondary and postsecondary education to earning college credit. These programs are called Secondary-Post Secondary Learning Options (SPLOs). This report focused on SPLOs targeted to first-generation students, low-income students, low-performing students, students with disabilities, and underrepresented minorities. The research questions for this report are:

  1. 1. Is there evidence that these different models of SPLOs are effective at increasing academic performance, closing the achievement gap, and increasing entry to and retention in postsecondary education, particularly for first-generation or low-income students, students of color, and students with disabilities?
  2. 2. Do financing mechanisms support equity and access by all students? Is there evidence that these programs are cost effective?
  3. 3. Are college courses for high school students as rigorous and at the same level as regular college courses?
  4. 4. What evidence exists to demonstrate that these programs meet their goals of serving a specific target population or solving a specific problem?
  5. 5. Who should pay for high school students to take these courses and what are some of the financing structures? Should federal student aid dollars be used to support high school students?
  6. 6. On what outcomes should these programs be measured: high school graduation, grades, attainment of college credit, entry to postsecondary education, and/or completion of degree?
A variety of programs were reviewed to address the research questions, including dual enrollment, tech prep, middle/early college high schools, programs serving disadvantaged youth, and college access programs. Overall longitudinal data were not available to thoroughly answer the research questions. However, one noteworthy finding was that students participating in SPLOs earned higher standardized test scores than their counterparts. In addition, the rate at which students enrolled in college was higher after participating in an SPLO program.

Treviño, A., & Mayes, C. (2006). Creating a bridge from high school to college for Hispanic students. Multicultural Education, 14(2), 74-77.

Early College High Schools (ECHS) are defined as "small schools where students can earn both a high school diploma and two years of college credit toward a bachelor's degree" (Early Colleges, 2005). ECHSs are designed as places of learning to help young people progress toward the education and experience they need to succeed in life and in family-supporting careers. The Utah County Academy of Sciences (UCAS) is innovative in its approach in assisting Hispanic students. As Hispanic students enter an Early College High Schools (ECHS) program such as the Utah County Academy of Sciences (UCAS), it is clear that no single theory of academic achievement entirely explains why some students succeed in school and others fail, nor can just one type of program answer everyone's needs. As Hispanic students enter an ECHS program such as UCAS, it is clear that it is vital to understand school achievement as a combination of personal, cultural, familial, interactive, political, and societal issues, and this means understanding the socio political context in which education takes place. UCAS represents just one kind of attempt in a specific setting to begin to respond to the multifaceted needs of students of color. The purpose of presenting an overview of this experimental program in this article is to provide an example that will aid other educators and policymakers as they conceptualize and implement their own unique approaches to the challenge and promise of multicultural education.

Vanderbrook, C. M. (2006). Intellectually gifted females and their perspectives of lived experience in the AP and IB programs. The Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 17(3), 133-148.

The Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) programs serve as popular choices for many intellectually gifted high school students. This article describes an aspect of a larger study that examined 5 intellectually gifted females’ perceptions of their educational experience while enrolled in one of the programs. Using the phenomenological method of qualitative research, this study reports that the participants identified various challenges within the curriculum as part of the overall AP and IB experience. In addition, the participants believe that the teachers in these programs heavily influenced their perception of their experience in the program.

Benally, S. (2004). Serving American Indian students: Participation in accelerated learning opportunities. Boulder, CO: Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education.

Benally conducted a qualitative research study focusing on American Indian and Alaska Native participation in Advanced Placement courses. The study included 15 schools in the western part of the United States. School districts were selected based on their proximity to American Indian Reservations. Data for the study was collected through interviews with students, teachers, and other school personnel. Interview questions concentrated on access to AP programs, participation by American Indian students in such programs, and issues and challenges that keep students from enrolling in AP programs.The findings of the study were consistent with other studies of this nature. In particular, high schools serving large populations of American Indian students either do not offer or have a very limited offering of AP classes available to students. When the programs are offered, a very small number of American Indian students participate. Additionally, the following challenges for attracting American Indian students to AP programs are outlined:

  • Parental Involvement,
  • College Orientation,
  • Availability and Quality of Gifted Programs,
  • Early Opportunities,
  • Cultural Sustainability,
  • Community-Based Problems,
  • Interrelated Issues (such as student achievement and wellness issues),
  • Teacher Preparation,
  • School Accountability, and
  • Negative Stereotyping.
The article includes policy recommendations for school leaders to address the these challenges.

Marcel, K. W. (2003). Online Advanced Placement classes: Experiences of rural and low-income high school students. Boulder, CO: Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED478377)

Marcel was commissioned by the Western Consortium for Accelerated Learning Opportunities to examine rural and low-income students’ experiences with online AP courses. The study was exploratory in nature. During the study 30 students, their mentors, and school administrators were interviewed at four high schools in two Western states about their experiences with online AP courses. Of the students interviewed, 25 of them qualified as low-income. The study found that simply offering AP courses online is not enough for rural and low-income students. In order for students to succeed, the courses must be offered in tandem with support for these students, and students must have access to computers outside of class. Online AP courses should be designed to promote active learning, student interaction, and group interaction. The roles of online AP instructors and in-school mentors need to be better defined, and students must have access to educators for help when no one in the school building has the expertise to answer their questions.

Fredrick, L. D., Keel, M. C., & Neel, J. H. (2002). Making the most of instructional time: Teaching reading at an accelerated rate to students at risk. Journal of Direct Instruction, 2(1), 57-63.

Students who are performing below their grade-level can be considered to be "at-risk for school failure." These students need to learn at an accelerated rate, that is, faster than national norms to move out of the risk situation. Direct Instruction is one means of accelerating learning (Carnine, 1988). Reading Mastery, a Direct Instruction program, was used to teach reading to first- and second-grade students at risk. The Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised was administered pre and post to determine students' reading grade level and rate of reading gain prior to and during the implementation of Reading Mastery. The rate of reading gain during the Reading Mastery intervention using a dependent one-tailed t test with a Bonferroni corrections for each grade level. A significant difference in rate of gain was found for Total Reading in both grades and for Word Attack in first grade and Word Identification in second grade.

Howley, A. (2002). The progress of gifted students in a rural district that emphasized acceleration strategies. Roeper Review, 24(3), 158-160.

The author utilizes a case study approach to explore a rural school district’s experiences implementing gifted programming. After establishing the case for acceleration (a type of gifted programming), including studies that have demonstrated that accelerated gifted students achieve a grade ahead of non-accelerated gifted students, Howley details some of the challenges to implementing such programming. These challenges include concerns about students’ social-emotional health, worry about curriculum sequencing, assumptions that too many parents will request that their kids be accelerated, and worry about scheduling problems. Despite these concerns, the district examined in this article successfully implemented gifted programming over a period of eleven years. Principals at each school were given the freedom to individualize their programs. Even with differing approaches, the author attributes the success of the district’s programming to the schools' focusing on the needs of each child individually, having curriculum that was matched to the child’s abilities, monitoring student progress frequently, and performing program evaluation.

Howley, A. (2002). The progress of gifted students in a rural district that emphasized accelerations strategies. Roeper Review, 24(3), 158-160.

This reprinted article originally appeared in 1989 in Roeper Review, 11(4), 205-207. This article discusses one rural district's experiences with the use of various acceleration strategies in different elementary schools. Though the programs varied, they all achieved similar success. That success may be attributed to four common characteristics: (1) planning for each student focused on individual needs; (2) instructional materials closely approximated students' instructional levels; (3) teachers monitored students' progress on a routine basis; and (4) students' progress was documented through pre and post testing with the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery: Tests of Achievement. A comment on this article by a group of guest editors is appended.

Noble, K. D., Subotnik, R. F., & Arnold, K. D. (1999). To thine own self be true: A new model of female talent development. Gifted Child Quarterly, 43(3), 140-149.

Describes an innovative model of female talent development based upon the life experiences of gifted women from a wide variety of backgrounds and talent domains. Key issues addressed by the model are the personal, professional, and cultural challenges common to gifted females and strategies for coping with them.

Harrison, J. A. (1998). A great LEAP forward. American School Board Journal, 185(9), 44-45.

In 1996, a Winston-Salem principal closed a failing alternative school and developed a new program dedicated to helping at-risk kids succeed. The result was LEAP (Learning and Acceleration Program) Academy, a school that helps academically unstable middle-school students catch up to their peers by completing two years of academic coursework in one school year.

Arnold, K. D., Noble, K. D., & Subotnik, R.F. (1996). Remarkable women: Perspectives on female talent development. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Press.

This book consolidates and expands existing knowledge about highly capable women and the internal and external forces that lead them to extraordinary adult accomplishment. The collected studies include women from a wide variety of backgrounds and talent domains whose paths to exceptional achievement illuminate the nature of female talent development and provide models to help more women fulfill their promise in adulthood.

Swanson, J. D. (1995). Project SEARCH: Selection, enrichment, and acceleration of rural children. (Final Report). Columbia, SC: South Carolina Department of Education.

This final report describes the activities of Project Search (Selection Enrichment and Acceleration of Rural Children), a project funded by a federal Javits grant to address the identification of young gifted and talented students from underrepresented populations and to develop a model for providing appropriate services for young, potentially gifted children. The project focused on three pilot school sites in rural areas of the Charleston County School District in South Carolina. All three schools served a majority of African American children. The project began with kindergarten classrooms and then added second and third grade classrooms. By the end of the project, staff directly affected more than 450 students and 26 teachers and principals. Assessment instruments were used to evaluate students' intelligence, academics, creativity, and social leadership; student portfolios were also used for identification of the top 10-15 percent of students. The project developed an inclusive classroom model for nurturing giftedness that involved curriculum development and teacher training. Classroom strategies included higher level questioning and dialog, open-ended and project-based assignments, varied materials and hands-on activities with students, and opportunities for self-directed activities. The report includes the final dissemination packet on promising practices, information about assessment instruments, and an evaluation.

Silverman, L. (1993). What happens to the gifted girl? In J. Maker (Ed.), Critical issues in gifted education: programs for the gifted in regular classrooms, Vol. III. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

Dr. Silverman makes a good case for early entrance to kindergarten or first grade being preferable to letting girls go "underground" academically to fit in, as they often do at around age 9.

Benbow, C. P. (1992). Meeting the needs of the gifted in rural areas through acceleration. Gifted Child Today, 15(2), 15-19.

This article provides research-based suggestions for developing educational options based on acceleration to meet the needs of gifted students in rural areas. Accelerative options offered by both the home school and universities in Iowa are described.

Jones, E. D., & Southern, W. T. (1992). Programming, grouping, and acceleration in rural school districts: A survey of attitudes and practices. Gifted Child Quarterly, 36(2), 112-117.

Interviews with the coordinators of 37 gifted education programs (20 rural and 17 urban) indicated that rural school districts are less likely to use ability grouping or academic acceleration and are more likely to use sporadic extracurricular activities. An earlier survey of 171 teachers also found fewer program options in rural areas.

Rimm, S. B. (1992). The use of subject and grade skipping for the prevention and reversal of underachievement. Gifted Child Quarterly, 36(2), 100-105.

Fourteen sets of parents and 11 gifted students who had been accelerated (early kindergarten entrance, grade skipping, and subject skipping) were interviewed. All parents and students indicated they would make the same decision again. Administrator attitudes became more positive, but teachers perceived some student adjustment problems.

Jones, E. D., et al. (1990). Attitudes of gifted underachievers toward accelerative options. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, Little Rock, AR.

This study surveyed underachieving gifted students and their parents in order to: determine the extent and sources of positive and negative attitudes toward educational acceleration; compare the views of parents and students for congruence; and compare the perceptions of successful students and their parents with the views of identified underachieving students and their parents. Data from 15 students and their parents indicated few concerns that acceleration would have negative effects on leadership, academic achievement, or creativity. The overriding concern of parents and students was for the potentially negative effects that acceleration would have on social and emotional development. Eight of the parents indicated that they had considered acceleration for their children, seven of these decided to accelerate their children, and all but one of the seven stated that the decision to accelerate worked out well. Parents and students from the underachieving sample held generally similar perceptions of potential harm compared to a sample of successful students and their parents.

Montgomery, J. L. (1990). Factors that influence the career aspirations of mathematically precocious females. Presented at the Asian Conference on Giftedness: Growing up Gifted and Talented, Taipei, Taiwan.

The career aspirations and the factors influencing career decisions were investigated for a group of extremely precocious females to determine why some enter math/science careers and others do not. Using the multiple-case study approach, 15 mathematically precocious females' career paths were characterized. These females had scored before age 13 at least 700 on the Scholastic Aptitude Test-Mathematics (SAT-M) (frequency top 1 in 60,000). Questionnaires completed at age 13, in 8th grade, and after high school graduation were used; in-depth telephone interviews at 19 to 21 years provided further data. Extremely mathematically precocious females have focused career goals by age 18; two-thirds had entered math/science fields by age 19-21. These math talented females viewed their career choice as a reflection of interests, which stemmed from early family influences and educational opportunities.

Howley, A. (1989). The progress of gifted students in a rural district that emphasized acceleration strategies. Roeper Review, 11(4), 205-207.

The author utilizes a case study approach to explore a rural school district’s experiences implementing gifted programming. After establishing the case for acceleration (a type of gifted programming), including studies that have demonstrated that accelerated gifted students achieve a grade ahead of non-accelerated gifted students, Howley details some of the challenges to implementing such programming. These challenges include concerns about students’ social-emotional health, worry about curriculum sequencing, assumptions that too many parents will request that their kids be accelerated, and worry about scheduling problems. Despite these concerns, the district examined in this article successfully implemented gifted programming over a period of eleven years. Principals at each school were given the freedom to individualize their programs. Even with differing approaches, the author attributes the success of the district’s programming to the schools' focusing on the needs of each child individually, having curriculum that was matched to the child’s abilities, monitoring student progress frequently, and performing program evaluation.

Howley, A., et al. (1986). Acceleration as a means of individualizing instruction for gifted students in rural schools: A preservice rural special education module: 121. Bellingham, WA: Western Washington University, National Rural Development Institute.

This teaching module instructs preservice teachers about accelerating the progress of rural gifted students. Acceleration consists of various provisions that allow early completion of school, including grade skipping, cross-grade placement, early entry, dual attendance, special class placement, and radical acceleration. In rural areas, the practice of acceleration is especially critical because of its cost-effectiveness in comparison to enrichment programs. However, the literature suggests that rural teachers and administrators express many concerns about acceleration. Therefore, this module aims to prepare preservice teachers to address concerns about acceleration and to implement effective acceleration programs for rural gifted students.

Janos, P. M., Sanfilippo, S. M., & Robinson, N. M. (1986). Underachievement among markedly accelerated college students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 15(4), 303-311.

This study investigated those few lackluster achievers as could be identified, using loose criteria, in a college-level program of academic acceleration. Underachieving males appeared less psychologically mature and appeared to suffer more internal conflict than achieving males, but underachieving females evidenced greater maturity than their counterparts.

Long, B. H. (1973). Acceleration in science for achieving high school women. Project RISE (Final Report). Washington, DC: National Science Foundation.

This study demonstrates that a population of high-achieving young women with sufficient motivation and ability for acceleration in science may be readily identified and that acceleration in science is practical for such a group. To test the effects of participation in a research-oriented multi-disciplinary college course (Research Introduction to Science) by high-achieving female high school juniors, 324 students selected on the basis of grades and achievement test scores were administered the Strong Vocational Interest Blank for Women and the Careers Attitudes and Plans Survey. They were also offered the possibility of taking a free multidisciplinary college course. The 137 students definitely interested in taking the course were randomly divided into two groups: experimental (enrolled in the course) and control (not enrolled). They differed significantly from the 187 not interested on 32 of the 69 variables. Fifty-eight students (85%) successfully completed the course, and their grades and ratings of enjoyment of the course correlated significantly with 42 pre and post measures. Those sufficiently motivated for the course were significantly higher on "science" factor scores and more interested in careers in general than those not motivated.