Articles are listed in descending order by year (most recent first), and then by first author's last name.
Ronksley-Pavia, M., Grootenboer, P., & Pendergast, D. (2019). Bullying and the Unique Experiences of Twice Exceptional Learners: Student Perspective Narratives. Gifted Child Today, 42(1), 19-35. doi:10.1177/1076217518804856
Bullying is known to be prevalent across social settings for children, particularly, for those who have disability and intermittently gifted students. What remains relatively underresearched is the phenomenon of bullying in the lives of twice-exceptional children. This article presents findings about the bullying experiences of eight twice-exceptional children aged 9 to 16 years from a study that explored the lived experiences of these children. Their narratives describe the pervasiveness of bullying. The six themes which emerged from the data about bullying experiences were (a) bullying by peers, (b) bullying by teachers, (c) teachers' and adults' responses to bullying, (d) social isolation and bullying, (e) the emotional effects of being bullied, and (f) protective factors. The contribution to the field of twice-exceptionality along with the children's experiences and consequences of being bullied are discussed. This article concludes with recommendations for practice and further research.
Yu, M., Novak, J. A., Lavery, M. R., Vostal, B. R., & Matuga, J. M. (2018). Predicting College Completion among Students with Learning Disabilities. Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals, 41(4), 234-244.
The authors analyzed National Longitudinal Transition Study--2 (NLTS2) data to examine the role of high school academic preparation and receipt of postsecondary academic support services (PASS) in predicting college completion among students with learning disabilities. Logistic regression analyses revealed that students who earned a 3.0 grade point average (GPA) in a college preparatory curriculum were more than twice as likely to complete college than those with a similar GPA who did not complete a college preparatory curriculum. Furthermore, among students who completed a college preparatory curriculum, earning a higher GPA and accessing PASS both dramatically increased the likelihood that they would complete college. Results underscore the importance of incorporating a college preparatory curriculum into transition planning for college-bound students with learning disabilities.
Josephson, J., Wolfgang, C., & Mehrenberg, R. (2018). Strategies for Supporting Students Who Are Twice-Exceptional. Journal of Special Education Apprenticeship, 7(2). Retrieved January 29, 2019, from http://www.josea.info
Students with disabilities have complex learning needs. It wasn't until the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA) that federal attention was pointed towards students who are both gifted "and" have a disability. This concept, known as twice-exceptionality, is a difficult concept to fully comprehend as the characteristics of these students can be complicated. Reis, Baum, and Burke (2014) define twice-exceptional (2e) students as those who have simultaneous characteristics of a gifted student and a student with a disability. In this article, the authors identify evidence-based strategies that teachers should consider when supporting and instructing 2e students in the elementary, middle, and secondary grades. After a brief explanation of each strategy, examples of specific classroom applications of these ideas are shared.
Lee, C., & Ritchotte, J. A. (2018). Seeing and Supporting Twice-Exceptional Learners. The Educational Forum, 82(1), 68-84. doi:10.1080/00131725.2018.1379580
Through a four-part discussion, this essay advocates for seeing the characteristics and special needs of gifted students with disabilities and using best practices to support their learning. Part 1 delineates the evolution of the legislative acts and professional initiatives regarding twice exceptionality. Part 2 discusses the educational rights of twice-exceptional learners. Part 3 presents challenges to understanding and supporting this student population, followed by a call for ongoing personnel training in part 4.
Boxtel, J. M. (2016). Reason: A Self-Instruction Strategy for Twice-Exceptional Learners Struggling With Common Core Mathematics. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(1), 66-73. doi:10.1177/0040059916662252
Educators across the nation are now well under way in implementing the Common Core State Standards (CCSS; National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School Officers [NGA & CCSSO], 2010) for mathematics. The emerging literature regarding CCSS mathematics instruction for students with disabilities urges teachers to prioritize standards, develop real-world applications, and incorporate evidence-based practices (Saunders, Bethune, Spooner, & Browder, 2013). Additional recommendations for teachers about students with disabilities include a focus on developing the foundational skills in mathematics for students who struggle (Powell, Fuchs, & Fuchs, 2013) and the implementation of data-based individualization for students who are performing below standards, which involves collecting formative and summative assessment data and intensifying instruction accordingly (Powell & Stecker, 2014). However, general and special educators must also endeavor to address the mathematics needs for 2e students who may not necessarily exhibit problems with conceptual understanding of mathematics but may have difficulty expressing their problem solving approaches (Reis, Baum, & Burke, 2014). Meeting the needs of twice-exceptional students effectively can be challenging unless a holistic approach is undertaken. This article describes REASON, a self-regulation mnemonic strategy used to scaffold the reasoning process in mathematical problem solving for a 2e learner.
Collins, L. E. (2016). Take a Byte: Technology for 2e Students. Parenting for High Potential, 5(2), 16-19. Retrieved February 26, 2019, from www.nagc.org/php.aspx.
"Twice-exceptional," also referred to as "2e," is a term used to describe gifted children who have the characteristics of gifted students and give evidence of one or more disabilities as defined by federal or state eligibility criteria. These disabilities may include specific learning disabilities (SpLD), speech and language disorders, emotional/behavioral disorders, physical disabilities, autism spectrum, or other impairments such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twice-exceptional (2e) students can struggle with organization of cognitive tasks due to executive function challenges, and may struggle with social cues, sensory issues, learning disabilities, anxiety, and depression. Because of these challenges, school is not always the euphoric place parents and teachers hope it will be, but students' affinity with technology can be used to support study, organization, social skills, and enrichment in interest areas.
Missett, T. C., Azano, A. P., Callahan, C. M., & Landrum, K. (2016). The Influence of Teacher Expectations about Twice-Exceptional Students on the Use of High Quality Gifted Curriculum: A Case Study Approach. Exceptionality, 24(1), 18-31. doi:10.1080/09362835.2014.986611
Twice-exceptional students show evidence of high academic performance or potential and also have a disability that impedes their ability to learn. Twice-exceptional students remain under-represented in gifted programs, and some researchers attribute such under-representation to the negative beliefs and low expectations about twice-exceptional students held by teachers. While researchers have begun to investigate the curricular models and instructional strategies that are effective for twice-exceptional students, little research addresses how teacher beliefs and expectations about student ability are reflected in the ways teachers implement such models and strategies for twice-exceptional students in gifted classrooms. Even less research addresses gifted students with emotional and behavioral disabilities. We used a case study of a third-grade teacher using a structured, model-based language arts curriculum to better understand how her expectations about a gifted student with an emotional disability influenced her instructional choices. Using observational and interview data, the case study approach allowed the researchers to personalize the experiences of this teacher and provided a context in which to examine the subtleties of teacher expectations when teaching a gifted student with an emotional disability. Implications for educational practice, particularly the need for comprehensive school-based support systems for students with emotional disabilities, are discussed.
Mayes, R. D., & Moore, J. L. (2016). Adversity and Pitfalls of Twice-Exceptional Urban Learners. Journal of Advanced Academics, 27(3), 167-189. doi:10.1177/1932202x16649930
Current research provides unique insights into the experiences and context of twice-exceptional students in K-12 schools. However, within this literature, a critical gap exists concerning the voices of twice-exceptional African American students and their families. The current qualitative study examined the perceptions, attitudes, and experiences of eight African American artistically gifted students with disabilities and three parents in a large, urban school district in the Midwest. Three major themes emerged from qualitative interviews: (a) the significance of labels, (b) social and personal experiences of exceptionality, and (c) challenges and strategies in the school environment. To this end, findings indicate that students experience their special education identity much differently from their gifted identity.
Mayes, R. D., & Moore, J. L. (2016). The Intersection of Race, Disability, and Giftedness. Gifted Child Today, 39(2), 98-104. doi:10.1177/1076217516628570
Current literature on twice-exceptionality (gifted and special education) provides a general framework in understanding the experiences of gifted students with disabilities. More specifically, it highlights the challenges in identification as well as the personal and social challenges students often endure as they progress through school. However, few theoretical- and research-based publications have examined the intersection of race, disability, and giftedness. This article discusses this intersection, with specific attention on African American, twice-exceptional students, and it provides specific recommendations for preservice and in-service educators. In addition, implications for future research are discussed.
Abramo, J. (2015). Gifted Students with Disabilities: "Twice Exceptionality" in the Music Classroom. Music Educators Journal,101(4), 62-69. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/24755602
Many music educators teach students who are both gifted and possess a learning disability—what is commonly referred to as "twice exceptionality." This article describes some characteristics of twice-exceptional students, the challenges these students often face in school, and some strategies music educators can use to properly differentiate instruction and curricula. The strategies offered include highlighting strengths and mitigating areas of challenge; emphasizing integrative thinking and deemphasizing dispersive thinking; allowing students flexibility of choice; overtly teaching organizational skills, self-regulation, and compensation strategies; and building relationships. While the differentiation strategies suggested are specifically for twice-exceptional students, they can benefit all students.
Foley-Nicpon, M., Assouline, S. G., & Fosenburg, S. (2015). The Relationship Between Self-Concept, Ability, and Academic Programming Among Twice-Exceptional Youth. Journal of Advanced Academics, 26(4), 256-273.
Researchers investigated the self-concept profiles of twice-exceptional students in relationship to their cognitive ability and participation in educational services. All subjects (N = 64) had high ability (IQ score at or above the 90th percentile) and were diagnosed with either an autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 53) or specific learning disability (SLD; n = 11). Self-concept and ability measures were administered as a part of comprehensive evaluations to assess for co-existing high ability and disability. Despite the presence of a disability, overall self-concept profiles were in the average range, suggesting either co-occurring high ability serves as a protective mechanism or a possible positive illusory bias among participants. There was no relationship between ability, educational services, and self-concept, implying that high cognitive ability and related educational interventions are independent of how twice-exceptional students feel about themselves. Findings raise questions about the precision of traditional identification models in selecting twice-exceptional students for participation in gifted education programming.
Mccallum, S., Browarnik, B. L., Taylor, E., Coles, J., & Hays, E. (2015). Comparing prospective twice-exceptional students to high-performing peers on high-stakes tests. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 38(3), 294-317. doi:10.1037/e569452014-001
From a sample of 1,242 third graders, prospective twice-exceptional students were selected using reading and math curriculum-based measures (CBMs), routinely used in Response to Intervention (RtI). These prospective twice-exceptional students were compared with non-twice-exceptional peers with similar strengths in either math or reading on CBMs and an end-of-year high-stakes achievement test. Students (both potentially twice-exceptional and not) who are potentially gifted in reading based on CBM performance did not differ significantly on the end-of-year outcomes in reading (p < 0.05); rather, students in both groups performed equally high. However, twice-exceptional students who are potentially gifted in math performed significantly lower on both end-of-year math and reading outcomes than non-twice-exceptional peers. Most of the end-of-year math subtest scores were negatively affected by the prospective twice-exceptional students' deficits in reading, even though their math CBM scores placed them into a category representing giftedness in math. Implications for screening for twice-exceptionality are discussed.
Park, S. (2015). Cultural considerations for twice-exceptional children from Asian families. Gifted and Talented International, 30(1-2), 135-145. doi:10.1080/15332276.2015.1137464
Since the term twice-exceptional has been entered to the field of gifted education, many studies have investigated the population of students who possess both giftedness and disabilities. It has been shown that there are some challenges to recognizing twice-exceptional children due to current screening and identification process. For this reason, the exact picture of what this population looks like has not yet been drawn, and further studies will be necessary to determine the precise racial/ethnic configuration. This has been a barrier to investigating how to approach twice-exceptional children from culturally diverse backgrounds. This article reviewed the previous research on twice-exceptional children with cultural considerations for the students from Asian American families. Several suggestions are provided: more understanding of Asian parenting styles and parenting stress; parents as advocates for their twice-exceptional children; and interdisciplinary collaboration. Directions for future research are suggested.
Townend, G., & Prendergast, D. (2015). Student voice: What can we learn from twice-exceptional students about the teachers role in enhancing or inhibiting academic self-concept. Australasian Journal of Gifted Education, 24(1), 37-51. doi:10.21505/ajge.2015.0006
Academic self-concept relates to students' perceptions of their academic accomplishments, and academic competence and expectations of academic success or failure. Academic self-concept has been identified as being critical for academic success in school as it underpins educational aspirations, academic interest, course selection, and achievement over time. Twice-exceptional students are intellectually gifted with a coexisting disability and hence present as a dual paradox for education systems, both in terms of being gifted and having a disability. The paradox of two, or one, or neither of the exceptionalities being visible in a child in school is due primarily to outward behaviours, lack of community knowledge, and challenges with identification (Vail, 1989). Despite over twenty years of empirical research on twice-exceptional students, the influences on academic self-concept remains virtually unexplored. This research investigates teachers' influences on the school experience of twice-exceptional students and how these influences shape academic self-concept. A case study research design includes both quantitative instrument data and interview data. Findings provide new understandings about teachers' influences on academic self-concept for twice-exceptional students. This research contributes to a gap in the field and leads to a better understanding that can be applied to policy and practice for gifted education.
Ronksley-Pavia, M. (2015). A Model of Twice-Exceptionality: Explaining and Defining the Apparent Paradoxical Combination of Disability and Giftedness in Childhood. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 38(3), 318-340. doi:10.1177/0162353215592499
The literature on twice-exceptionality suggests one of the main problems facing twice-exceptional children is that there is no consensus on the definition of the terms "disability" or "giftedness" and, consequently, the term "twice-exceptional". Endeavoring to define these specific terms loops back on itself to legislation based on the medical model of disability and the defining of giftedness in a limited way, frequently through high achievement and performance, which contradicts the generally accepted notion of giftedness in Australia. It appears that a model is needed to define the apparent paradoxical term, not only for scholars within the field but also for educators and the wider community of students and parents/guardians. This article examines the contextual contributing factors in the creation of a model of twice-exceptionality, creating a preliminary point for discourse on disability, giftedness, and twice-exceptionality on which it is anticipated that future research can be grounded.
Dickson, K. (2015). Voices From the Field: Central Office Administrators. Gifted Child Today, 38(4), 234-236. doi:10.1177/1076217515597283
School systems' central office administrators sometimes take paths that seem easiest, even when it is clear the paths will not lead to sustained positive results that are needed--particularly in terms of twice-exceptional (2e) students. To appropriately address the needs of 2e learners, we must ensure that central office administrative services have the capacity to address 2e learners' potential and their area of disability. This means that teachers will need to be capable of differentiating instruction, recognizing strengths in each learner, and providing interventions to help them be successful. Building this kind of capacity among central office administrators requires different thinking about resources and policy. It requires thinking about, supports, and services in integrated ways.
Baldwin, L., Baum, S., Pereles, D., & Hughes, C. (2015). Twice-Exceptional Learners: The Journey Toward a Shared Vision. Gifted Child Today, 38(4), 206-214.
For more than 50 years, the unique needs of twice-exceptional (2e) learners have challenged educators. Because of this challenge, much work has been done in different areas across the country in creating appropriate learning environments for serving this population. However, no unified way has been developed to bring together the best research and thinking regarding practice. Most importantly, no one definition has been embraced by both researchers and practitioners. To address this issue, professional organizations and specialists in the field of twice-exceptionality formed a Community of Practice and a new definition was created. This definition and how it can be used to move the field forward is presented.
Alloway, T. P., Elsworth, M., Miley, N., & Seckinger, S. (2014). Computer use and behavior problems in twice-exceptional students. Gifted Education International, 32(2), 113-122. doi:10.1177/0261429414540392
This pilot study investigated how engagement with computer games and TV exposure may affect behaviors of gifted students. We also compared behavioral and cognitive profiles of twice-exceptional students and children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Gifted students were divided into those with behavioral problems and those without, based on teacher ratings of classroom behavior. Both gifted students and those with ADHD completed standardized tests of IQ and working memory. The findings indicated that gifted students displayed similar oppositional and hyperactive behaviors as those with ADHD, but did not exhibit similar levels of inattentive behaviors. Despite the similarities in behavioral profiles, the gifted students performed significantly better in the cognitive tests compared to those with ADHD. Playing computer games and watching TV showed a trend in predicting inattentive behaviors at home, but not in a classroom setting. We discuss possible applications of computer use for maximizing learning and maintaining motivation in the classroom.
Baum, S. M., Schader, R. M., Hebert, T. P. (2014). Through a different lens: Reflecting on a strengths-based, talent-focused approach for twice-exceptional learners. Gifted Child Quarterly, 58(4), 311-327.
This study sought to understand the experiences of a cohort of students who entered a strengths-based private school for twice-exceptional students during middle school and successfully completed graduation requirements. Using a case study design, the researchers analyzed data collected from student and teacher interviews, parent focus groups, educational records, and psychological reports. Findings indicate areas of change and development across cognitive, emotional/behavioral, and social domains and identified five factors underlying student growth: psychological safety, tolerance for asynchrony, time, positive relationships, and the consistent use of a strengths-based, talent-focused philosophy. Data also revealed four benefits from the talent development opportunities offered by the school. Participating in talent development activities enabled students to become part of a social group; to overcome some social, emotional, and cognitive challenges in context; to develop ongoing mentor and professional relationships with people in talent areas; and to develop expertise in an area of talent. This research supports the incorporation of a strengths-based, talent-focused approach for twice-exceptional learners.
Lee, K. M., & Olenchak, F. R. (2014). Individuals with a gifted/attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Gifted Education International, 31(3), 185-199. doi:10.1177/0261429414530712
This paper reviews the current literature on twice-exceptional students who are dual diagnosed as having giftedness and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This area of research is warranted because giftedness and ADHD present similarly but have different ramifications for performance and outcomes. In addition, research inquiry and intervention can ease the frustration of those individuals who have both of these strengths and weaknesses. Giftedness and ADHD are examined in terms of identification of individual and dual diagnoses; performance of gifted students with ADHD, including underachievement and creativity; psychosocial outcomes; and interventions for students with giftedness/ADHD. Gaps in the literature and future directions are discussed.
Hua, O., Shore, B. M., & Makarova, E. (2014). Inquiry-based instruction within a community of practice for gifted–ADHD college students. Gifted Education International, 30(1), 74-86.
A number of characteristics are shared between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and gifted populations. They include issues with sustaining attention, following directions, and completing tasks. When an individual is both gifted and has ADHD (gifted-ADHD) he has unique educational needs that may put him at risk for underachievement. To date the literature largely addresses how to remediate perceived deficits. Less has been written about how to develop the talent of these twice-exceptional individuals. The present semi-autobiographical narrative proposes that inquiry-based instruction within an authentic community of practice can play an integral role in talent development for gifted-ADHD undergraduate students.
Berninger, V. W., & Abbott, R. D. (2013). Differences Between Children With Dyslexia Who Are and Are Not Gifted in Verbal Reasoning. Gifted Child Quarterly, 57(4), 223-233. doi:10.1177/0016986213500342
New findings are presented for children in Grades 1 to 9 who qualified their families for a multigenerational family genetics study of dyslexia (impaired word decoding/spelling) who had either superior verbal reasoning ("n" = 33 at or above 1 2/3 standard deviation, superior or better range; 19% of these children) or average verbal reasoning ("n" = 31 below population mean but above -2/3 standard deviation, average range; 18% of these children). Evidence-based rationale and results supporting the tested hypotheses are provided: (a) twice exceptional students with superior verbal reasoning and dyslexia significantly outperformed those with average verbal reasoning and dyslexia on reading, spelling, morphological, and syntactic skills, (b) but not on verbal working memory behavioral markers of genetically based dyslexia related to impaired phonological and orthographic word-form storage and processing, naming orthographic symbols (phonological loop), writing orthographic symbols (orthographic loop), and supervisory attention (focus, switch, sustain, or monitor attention). Superior verbal reasoning may mask dyslexia if only very low achievement is used to identify this disorder of oral word reading and written spelling. Instruction for twice exceptional students who have dyslexia, but are also verbally gifted, should focus not only on oral word reading and written spelling but also on the impaired working memory components within intellectually engaging lesson sets. These findings for gifted students with dyslexia are situated within the broader context of the many kinds of twice exceptionalities related to specific learning disabilities that exist in school-age children and youth.
Mccallum, R. S., Bell, S. M., Coles, J. T., Miller, K. C., Hopkins, M. B., & Hilton-Prillhart, A. (2013). A Model for Screening Twice-Exceptional Students (Gifted With Learning Disabilities) Within a Response to Intervention Paradigm. Gifted Child Quarterly, 57(4), 209-222. doi:10.1177/0016986213500070
The purpose of this article is to present a model for screening for twice-exceptional status (i.e., gifted students who have a learning disability). Curriculum-based measures (Monitoring Instructional Responsiveness: Reading and Monitoring Instructional Responsiveness: Math) were administered to 1,242 third-grade students within a Response to Intervention paradigm. When gifted status is tentatively defined as high performance (i.e., 84th percentile and higher) on a Monitoring Instructional Responsiveness reading probe, 5.48% of students exhibited deficits in (math) performance consistent with a significant discrepancy between reading and math (i.e., reading score -- math score); 4.83% exhibited a discrepancy in reading (i.e., math score -- reading). These values are based on "observed" scores using the following formula to define a discrepancy: 1.5(SD) × SEe. Only 2.1% exhibited a math discrepancy and 1.13% a reading discrepancy based on "predicted" scores, which takes regression to the mean into account. Using various cut score criteria, practitioners can select from less than 1% to about 10% for screening purposes. When using predicted (rather than observed) scores and more stringent cut score criteria, percentages decline, as expected. Recommendations for using this process for screening are provided, as are implications for best practice, particularly the impact of using more or less conservative criteria for screening twice exceptional students.
Neumeister, K. S. (2013). Influence of Primary Caregivers in Fostering Success in Twice-Exceptional Children. Gifted Child Quarterly, 57(4), 263-274.
Using grounded theory, this study investigated primary caregivers' perceptions of the role they play in influencing the academic success of students formally identified as twice-exceptional. Data from interviews were coded and analyzed for themes. Results indicated that primary caregivers (mothers) perceived that they played a major role in the academic success of their twice-exceptional children, first by recognizing their children's gifts as well as disabilities and then by assuming responsibility for the development of their children's potential. They sought professional evaluations, provided or secured educational supports, shaped their children's healthy perceptions of their disabilities, and taught them how to advocate for themselves while simultaneously maintaining high expectations for their children, despite their disabilities. Implications of the findings are discussed, and areas for future research are outlined.
Foley-Nicpon, M., Assouline, S. G., & Colangelo, N. (2013). Twice-Exceptional Learners: Who Needs to Know What? Gifted Child Quarterly, 57(3), 169-180.
Twice-exceptionality is gaining increasing recognition in the gifted education literature, but little is understood about the knowledge and awareness of this concept within the educational and psychological community, or about professionals' experience working with this population of learners. Three-hundred and seventeen individuals completed an online "Twice-Exceptional Needs Assessment", which consisted of 14 questions assessing issues pertaining to twice-exceptionality knowledge and experience, as well as knowledge of policies relevant to both gifted and special education. Results indicated that educators were more familiar with standards within their specific area of expertise (e.g., gifted or special education) and that fewer professionals were familiar with the use of Response to Intervention with twice-exceptional children. Gifted education professionals had significantly more knowledge and experience with twice-exceptionality than did professionals in other domains. We conclude with implications for educators and recommendations for expanding professional understanding of twice-exceptionality outside the field of gifted education to meet twice-exceptional students' multifaceted needs.
Willard-Holt, C., Weber, J., Morrison, K. L., & Horgan, J. (2013). Twice-Exceptional Learners Perspectives on Effective Learning Strategies. Gifted Child Quarterly, 57(4), 247-262.
This mixed-methods study investigates the perspectives of twice-exceptional students on learning strategies that have been recommended for them in the literature. Have the strategies recommended in the literature been implemented? Do students perceive the strategies to be beneficial in helping them learn? Participants represented a broad range of coexisting exceptionalities and ranged in age from 10 to 23 years. While mainly qualitative, this study was informed by a survey adapted from the Possibilities for Learning survey. Qualitative in-depth interviews provided rich descriptions of which learning strategies were facilitators and barriers. Findings indicated that participants perceived that their overall school experiences failed to assist them in learning to their potential, although they were able to use their strengths to circumvent their weaknesses. Implications for teachers included allowing twice-exceptional learners more ownership over their learning and more choice and flexibility in topic, method of learning, assessment, pace, and implementation of group collaboration.
Prior, S. (2013). Transition and Students With Twice Exceptionality. Australasian Journal of Special Education, 37(01), 19-27. doi:10.1017/jse.2013.3
"Twice exceptional" is one of the terms used to describe students who have giftedness and a disability. This is a small heterogeneous population of individual learners who are underserved in special, gifted, and mainstream education settings. Despite the availability of research on transition for students with disabilities, there is little research or literature available on transition for students who experience twice exceptionality (2E). This paper provides a review of the literature available on 2E, taking a lifespan perspective and a school transitions context for students experiencing 2E. Finally, the synthesis of 2E and transition highlights a potential way forward in the research across special, gifted, mainstream and inclusive education to transform student profiling, identification and transition.
Trail, B. A. (2012). Improving Outcomes for 2E Children. Parenting for High Potential, 1(5), 8-10. Retrieved February 26, 2019, from http://www.nagc.org/php.aspx
The term "twice-exceptional (2E)" is representative of a diverse group of individuals who have a wide range of gifts, talents, and accompanying disabilities. These children have the characteristics of gifted students along with the characteristics of children with disabilities. The gifted characteristics can mask the disability, or the disability can mask the gifted potential. Dealing with both exceptionalities can be extremely frustrating for gifted students with disabilities. Many 2E children are reluctant to ask for help. In fact, they try desperately to hide the fact they are struggling in an effort to protect their gifted identity. Each year it becomes more difficult for them to compensate for their disability. 2E children can experience years of frustration before their educational needs are addressed and optimal times for intervention are therefore missed. Parents may first realize there is a problem when they notice increasing levels of anxiety and frustration in their child, but are not sure of the exact nature of that problem. To the parents' dismay, their child's giftedness seems to disappear, and the disability becomes more and more noticeable. A's are replaced by F's and parents have to face the reality that their gifted child with so much potential is not interested in applying for college, and his or her progress in high school is compromised. This article presents five strategies that are intended to decrease risk, increase resiliency, and improve outcomes for 2E students.
Wood, S. C. (2012). Examining Parent and Teacher Perceptions of Behaviors Exhibited by Gifted Students Referred for ADHD Diagnosis Using the Conners 3 (An Exploratory Study). Roeper Review, 34(3), 194-204. doi:10.1080/02783193.2012.686426
This exploratory study considered the perceptions of parents and teachers regarding behaviors exhibited by gifted students who may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by examining their responses to the Conners 3 behavior rating scale. Statistical analysis revealed average scores in the ratings of parents and teachers in the areas of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, executive functioning, and learning problems. Parent and teacher ratings of these students were not significantly correlated nor were there significant differences between parents and teachers on ratings of students. The need for further examination of the psychometric properties and appropriate use of the Conners 3 in diagnosis of twice-exceptional students, the need for normative data on gifted populations for the Conners 3, and a greater understanding of the differential display of ADHD in the gifted population were suggested. (Contains 3 tables.)
Assouline, S. G., Nicpon, M. F., & Dockery, L. (2012). Predicting the Academic Achievement of Gifted Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,42(9), 1781-1789. doi:10.1007/s10803-011-1403-x
We are not well informed regarding the ability-achievement relationship for twice-exceptional individuals (very high cognitive ability and a diagnosed disability, e.g., autism spectrum disorder [ASD]). The research question for this investigation (N = 59) focused on the predictability of achievement among variables related to ability and education in a twice-exceptional sample of students (cognitive ability of 120 [91st percentile], or above, and diagnosed with ASD). We determined that WISC-IV Working Memory and Processing Speed Indices were both significantly positively correlated with achievement in math, reading, and written language. WISC Perceptual Reasoning Index was uniquely predictive of Oral Language test scores. Unexpected findings were that ASD diagnosis, Verbal Comprehension Index, and forms of academic acceleration were not related to the dependent variables.
Schultz, S. M. (2012). Twice-Exceptional Students Enrolled in Advanced Placement Classes. Gifted Child Quarterly, 56(3), 119-133. doi:10.1177/0016986212444605
Twice-exceptional students, those who have disabilities and display areas of gifts or talents, frequently spend their high school years with a focus on their disabilities. Using semistructured interviews, this study explores the perceptions of parents, teachers, and guidance counselors regarding participation of twice-exceptional students in Advanced Placement (AP) and for-college-credit classes. The supports and barriers for students with disabilities participating in AP and for-college-credit classes were identified. Additionally, participants included six college students who had taken AP and/or for-college-credit classes while still in high school. The results of this study indicated that school culture and early placement decisions affect enrollment in AP and for-college-credit classes for the twice-exceptional student. Inconsistencies between students' goals and transition planning and inconsistent implementation of test and environmental accommodations were documented. (Contains 3 tables.)
Leggett, D., Shea, I., & Leggett, J. (2011). Future School Counselors' Perceptions of Twice-Exceptionality: An Exploratory Study. Research in the Schools, 18(1), 1-11. Retrieved February 12, 2019, from http://www.msera.org/rits.htm
An exploratory survey was given to school counselors-in-training to gather preliminary information about their perceptions regarding students with twice-exceptionalities, their professional roles concerning service provision, and the roles of other helpers in assisting twice-exceptional students in the school setting. Thirty-seven participants responded to the survey consisting of 18 first-year and 19 second-year graduate students. Results provide descriptive information from the future school counselors about their perceptions of twice-exceptionality and current understanding of how to serve these students best. Participants deemed vocational/career planning as their most important role rather than advocacy. This initial survey is presented with the intention of stimulating discussion among counselors and educators regarding the practicalities involved in meeting the ethical mandates to serve twice-exceptional students successfully. (Contains 1 table.)
Nicpon, M. F., Allmon, A., Sieck, B., & Stinson, R. D. (2011). Empirical Investigation of Twice-Exceptionality: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going? Gifted Child Quarterly, 55(1), 3-17. Retrieved February 26, 2019, from http://sagepub.com
Gifted students with coexisting disabilities, also known as twice-exceptional, are increasingly recognized in America's schools. This increasing awareness needs to be met with equal enthusiasm for empirical investigation into the identification and treatment needs of this group of students. In this article, a 20-year review of the empirical literature examining twice-exceptionality, specifically gifted students with learning disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or autism spectrum disorder, was conducted. Research strongly suggests that gifted students can have a coexisting disability and that comprehensive, individualized approaches toward diagnosis are necessary. Less is known about effective treatments and interventions that simultaneously highlight strengths and accommodate for areas of growth. Future research directions are offered that ideally will encourage scholars to discover more about effective diagnostic and intervention techniques for this very important group of gifted learners. (Contains 3 tables.)
King, E. W., Coleman, M. R., & Miller, A. (2011). Response to Intervention: The Changing Role of School Psychologists in Relation to Gifted Students. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 27(4), 341-358. doi:10.1037/e630912012-001
Response to intervention is a school reform movement embracing the academic and behavioral needs of all students, including those with gifts and talents. With the implementation of response to intervention in schools across the country, education is in the midst of a significant systems change that is affecting the roles of the school psychologist. In this article, the authors (a) describe the changing roles of the school psychologist in relation to gifted education and response to intervention; (b) examine a specific issue (students who are twice-exceptional) where these role changes can be clearly illustrated; (c) share remaining opportunities and challenges in implementing response to intervention to address the strengths and needs of all children; and (d) review the process in Colorado for exploring and redefining these roles. (Contains 1 table and 1 note.)
Assouline, S. G., & Whiteman, C. S. (2011). Twice-Exceptionality: Implications for School Psychologists in the Post-Idea 2004 Era. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 27(4), 380-402.
Increased awareness of twice-exceptional students is important for all educators and psychologists; however, for school psychologists, improved understanding of twice-exceptionality will enhance their unique role in assessing twice-exceptional students and in recommending appropriate interventions in schools. In this article, the authors address giftedness and disability as separate topics and then connect them as they relate to twice-exceptionality. The authors explore twice-exceptionality in 3 separate case studies, with a specific focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and specific learning disability. The article includes a discussion of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act 2004, specifically as it relates to specific learning disability and giftedness. The authors conclude with 10 recommended practices that include the importance of a comprehensive evaluation to understand a student's strengths and weaknesses as well as the critical nature of differential diagnosis as a foundation for making recommendations for intervention.
Foley Nicpon, M., Allmon, A., Sieck, B., & Stinson, R. D. (2011). Empirical investigation of twice-exceptionality: Where have we been and where are we going? Gifted Child Quarterly, 55(1), 3-17.
Gifted students with coexisting disabilities,
also known as twice-exceptional, are increasingly recognized in America’s
schools. This increasing awareness needs to be met with equal enthusiasm for
empirical investigation into the identification and treatment needs of this
group of students. In this article, a 20-year review of the empirical
literature examining twice-exceptionality, specifically gifted students with
learning disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or autism
spectrum disorder, was conducted. Research strongly suggests that gifted
students can have a coexisting disability and that comprehensive,
individualized approaches toward diagnosis are necessary. Less is known about
effective treatments and interventions that simultaneously highlight strengths
and accommodate for areas of growth. Future research directions are offered
that ideally will encourage scholars to discover more about effective
diagnostic and intervention techniques for this very important group of gifted
Barber, C., & Mueller, C. T. (2011). Social and Self-Perceptions of Adolescents Identified as Gifted, Learning Disabled, and Twice-Exceptional. Roeper Review, 33(2), 109-120. doi:10.1080/02783193.2011.554158
The purpose of this study is to examine the social and self-perceptions of twice-exceptional "students", those students who meet criteria for being identified as both gifted and learning disabled. In particular, we focus on how twice-exceptional students are similar to, or different from, students with only a learning disability or who are only identified as gifted. Using data collected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we identified a group of 90 twice-exceptional adolescents as well as three matched comparison groups. Overall, twice-exceptional adolescents had less positive perceptions of maternal relationships and self-concept than did gifted or nonidentified adolescents. Further, perceptions of maternal relationships mediated and moderated group differences in self-concept. Implications for adults working with twice-exceptional adolescents are discussed. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
Bianco, M. (2010). Strength-Based RTI: Conceptualizing a Multi-Tiered System for Developing Gifted Potential. Theory into Practice, 49(4), 323-330. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40890964
This article explores the possibilities of a strength-based Response to Intervention (RTI) model for developing and identifying gifted potential. Although much has been written about the promises and challenges of RTI in recent years, the utility of RTI for meeting the needs of gifted learners has not been fully explored. This article seeks to address this void by examining RTI's potential to meet the unique learning needs of gifted and talented students, discuss challenges teachers might face, and invite gifted education advocates and researchers to explore and expand on this dialogue.
Assouline, S. G., Nicpon, M. F., & Whiteman, C. (2010). Cognitive and Psychosocial Characteristics of Gifted Students With Written Language Disability. Gifted Child Quarterly, 54(2), 102-115. doi:10.1177/0016986209355974
Gifted and talented students who also have a specific learning disability (SLD) are typically referred to as twice-exceptional and are among the most underserved students in our schools. Previous special education laws promoted a wait-to-fail approach; therefore, gifted students with SLD often were overlooked because their average academic performance was not "failure" enough. The flip side to this was the fact that students' giftedness, as measured by general ability tests, often was masked by average, yet relatively weak, academic achievement. They were not only waiting to fail, they were failing to flourish. The authors present the data gathered from 14 gifted students with SLD, specifically a disorder of written expression. Students were determined to be gifted if they earned a score of 120 (Superior) on the Verbal Scale of a cognitive ability test. They were considered to have a written language disability through an evaluation of their written language skills. The average Verbal IQ for the group was close to a standard score of 130, whereas the average Written Language Score was close to a standard score of 99. In addition to the cognitive profile for these students, the authors obtained measures of their psychosocial functioning. On average, parents, teachers, and students reported typical adaptive behavior, yet group elevations also were present on several clinical scales. The authors' main conclusion is that a comprehensive assessment plays a critical role in (a) determining whether a student is twice-exceptional, (b) identifying the possibility of psychosocial concerns, and (c) developing educational recommendations. Putting the Research to Use: The results from our empirical study suggest that only through a comprehensive evaluation, which includes both individualized achievement and ability tests and allows for an analysis of the performance discrepancy between the two, is it possible to discover cognitively gifted students with a disorder of written expression. Diagnostic/identification procedures that do not include a comprehensive evaluation place gifted students at serious risk for "missed" diagnosis and ultimately, missed opportunity for intervention. The missed diagnosis arises from the observation that their written work is average relative to that of their peers. Equally important is the concern that some very capable students may be over-looked for screening for gifted programming because their achievement is average. Educators of students who appear to have high verbal ability while simultaneously demonstrating difficulty completing written assignments--and may even appear to be lazy or unmotivated--have a responsibility to further investigate the students' difficulties and strengths. (Contains 5 tables.)
Baum, S., & Novak, C. (2010). Why Isn’t Talent Development on the IEP? SEM and the Twice Exceptional Learner. Gifted Education International, 26(2-3), 249-260.
Why isn't talent development included on the Individual Educational Plan of 2E students? Twice exceptional students have unique issues that respond especially well to a talent development approach especially within the context of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model. Through case studies and a review of successful projects using SEM with at risk populations, this article provides a rationale for using a talent development approach. The article concludes with an in-depth look at a school designed for 2E learners showing how the elements of the Model are helping this special population of students to thrive.
Yssel, N., Prater, M., & Smith, D. (2010). How can such a smart kid not get it? Finding the right fit for twice-exceptional students in our schools. Gifted Child Today, 33(1), 54-61.
During the past 6 years, the authors have worked and interacted with twice-exceptional middle school students as well as with their parents at an annual residential summer camp. Through surveys and interviews with the parents and their children, the difficulties that twice-exceptional students encounter at school emerged. Furthermore, parents' perceptions of the impact of a successful learning experience during one week of camp have been noteworthy. The purpose of this article is to present parents' perceptions of educational and social-emotional difficulties their twice exceptional children experience. The snapshots of twice-exceptional middle school students are interspersed with views and research findings from existing literature. Finally, a few successful strategies are described, and recommendations for the classroom are included.
Pereles, D. A., Omdal, S., & Baldwin, L. (2009). Response to Intervention and Twice-Exceptional Learners: A Promising Fit. Gifted Child Today, 32(3), 40-51. doi:10.1177/107621750903200310
Many books and articles have been written about a Response to Intervention (RtI) model of service delivery for students who are struggling learners. However, little has been written about this model's usefulness as a means of addressing the needs of advanced learners or twice-exceptional learners whose needs may be both remedial and advanced. The National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) define Response to Intervention as the "practice of providing high-quality instruction and interventions matched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction or goals and applying child response data to important educational decisions". In this article, the authors discuss why they feel that the RtI model that includes a problem-solving/consultation process is a promising fit for the twice-exceptional student. They describe the theoretical and practical implications for these special students and then take the reader through each element of the problem-solving/consultation process by discussing a case study of a gifted student who has both learning and behavioral challenges. (Contains 2 figures.)
Gilger, J. W., & Hynd, G. W. (2008). Neurodevelopmental Variation as a Framework for Thinking About the Twice Exceptional. Roeper Review, 30(4), 214-228. doi:10.1080/02783190802363893
Developmental exceptionalities span the range of learning abilities and encompass children with both learning disorders and learning gifts. The purpose of this article is to stimulate thinking about these exceptionalities, particularly the complexities and variations within and across people. Investigators tend to view learning disabilities or abilities, and gifts or high-end exceptionalities, as if they were necessarily and completely independent. This approach has led many in the field to look upon only limited aspects of the exceptional child, culminating in an inability to resolve the great variation and covariation that exists within and across children. Although there are a number of cognitive differences models that correctly advocate for an appreciation of profiles of strengths and weaknesses in the exceptional child, there remains a need for a neuroscientific approach that can help us better understand and accommodate the twice-exceptional individual--one with developmental disorders but also with high skills in the talent, creativity, or intellectual domains. We propose a model that will help us to fully appreciate that the brain that produces developmental learning abilities across the spectrum must be viewed as an integrated and multifaceted organ that is more than a simple reflection of its separate parts or domain-specific symptoms. We use developmental reading disability or dyslexia and the twice-exceptional individual as a means to illustrate how this model can aid in our thinking about these conditions. (Contains 2 figures and 5 footnotes.)
Jeweler, S., Barnes-Robinson, L., Shevitz, B. R., & Weinfeld, R. (2008). Bordering on Excellence: A Teaching Tool for Twice-Exceptional Students. Gifted Child Today, 31(2), 40-46. doi:10.4219/gct-2008-760
A major goal of education is to provide all students with the opportunity to reach their potential. Although few are able to argue with this goal, twice-exceptional students, including some of the most gifted students, are often on the brink of excellence due to the unique blend of assets and deficits they exhibit. Teachers are challenged each day to find ways to empower those bright students who may be unable to write a complete sentence, even though they are able to participate actively in a class discussion. In this article, the authors present Bordering on Excellence, a framework and graphic organizational planning tool designed for teachers to use with any instructional material. Through the authors' work over many years with twice-exceptional students, they found that the complexity of these needs, along with the demands of a rigorous curriculum, often seemed insurmountable when working to provide these special students with the appropriate instruction. Bordering on Excellence was born out of this need. (Contains 1 figure, 10 resources and 8 online resources.)
Hannah, L. C., & Shore, B. M. (2008). Twice-Exceptional Students Use of Metacognitive Skills on a Comprehension Monitoring Task. Gifted Child Quarterly, 52(1), 3-18. doi:10.1177/0016986207311156
Boys identified as learning-disabled gifted or twice exceptional, at two different grade levels (5th or 6th grades, and 11th or 12th grades), were asked to read a history text with unknown vocabulary words, internal inconsistencies, and prior knowledge violations inserted to make immediate comprehension difficult. The students were asked to read one sentence at a time and report their thoughts verbally. Their verbalizations were analyzed for evidence of how they used metacognitive skills. The older students actively monitored and evaluated their comprehension as they tried to make sense of the text but were more willing to accept problematic text. The younger students were not as active in monitoring their comprehension, but they were less likely to accept the prior knowledge violations. (Contains 2 tables.)
Jeweler, S., Barnes-Robinson, L., Shevitz, B. R., & Weinfeld, R. (2008). Bordering on Excellence: A Teaching Tool for Twice-Exceptional Students. Gifted Child Today, 31(2), 40-46.
A major goal of education is to provide all students with the opportunity to reach their potential. Although few are able to argue with this goal, twice-exceptional students, including some of the most gifted students, are often on the brink of excellence due to the unique blend of assets and deficits they exhibit. Teachers are challenged each day to find ways to empower those bright students who may be unable to write a complete sentence, even though they are able to participate actively in a class discussion. In this article, the authors present Bordering on Excellence, a framework and graphic organizational planning tool designed for teachers to use with any instructional material. Through the authors' work over many years with twice-exceptional students, they found that the complexity of these needs, along with the demands of a rigorous curriculum, often seemed insurmountable when working to provide these special students with the appropriate instruction. Bordering on Excellence was born out of this need.
Chamberlin, S. A., Buchanan, M., & Vercimak, D. (2007). Serving Twice-Exceptional Preschoolers: Blending Gifted Education and Early Childhood Special Education Practices in Assessment and Program Planning. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 30(3), 372-394. doi:10.1177/016235320703000305
This article addresses considerations for assessment and intervention planning in serving twice-exceptional preschool children. The authors propose blending recommended assessment practices in early childhood gifted education and early childhood special education in a comprehensive assessment process. In doing so, unique needs of twice-exceptional preschool children may be better met. Interviewing family members and other caregivers to determine strengths and needs in daily routines and observing young children in play are two practices that provide critical information about the preschool child's developmental status, family priorities, and daily life. The authors conclude that routines-based assessment (RBA) and play-based assessment (PBA) provide perspectives that standardized assessments alone cannot provide and that RBA and PBA may be especially effective in identifying and subsequently meeting the needs of twice-exceptional preschool children. (Contains 1 endnote.)
Krochak, L. A., & Ryan, T. G. (2007). The Challenge of Identifying Gifted/Learning Disabled Students. International Journal of Special Education, 22(3), 44-54. Retrieved February 26, 2019, from http://www.internationaljournalofspecialeducation.com
The following contemporary review illuminates several of the "best methods" to accurately identify gifted/learning disabled (GLD) students? Explanations which clearly define what it means to be gifted, learning disabled (LD) and gifted/learning disabled (GLD) are included and incorporated into a typology of three identities of GLD students. Recommended and currently utilized methods of GLD identification and assessment are detailed and various controversies surrounding these modes are explored. Current voids within the GLD research are described and present approaches and programming for GLD students is distilled. The future for this "twice exceptional" student is proposed and critical understandings are realized.
Rizza, M. G., & Morrison, W. F. (2007). Identifying Twice Exceptional Children: A Toolkit for Success. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 3(3). Retrieved February 12, 2019, from http://escholarship.bc.edu/education/tecplus
Students identified as gifted who also display one or more areas of disability remain under-identified both in special and gifted education programs. All too often school personnel do not have the resources necessary to make decisions about this unique group of students commonly called the twice-exceptional. The purpose of this article is to propose a general toolkit for use in identifying students who are twice-exceptional. The toolkit has been designed as an outline of the general issues and offers suggestions for implementation. There are four categories to the toolkit: pre-referral and screening, preliminary intervention, evaluation procedures, and educational planning. Each aspect of the toolkit has been designed to be broad and easily adapted for use in a variety of settings. Chief among the recommendations for successful implementation of this or any other plan is that school personnel in charge of making decisions about students who are twice-exceptional be informed about the nuances of the dual diagnosis. Also important is that personnel from special and gifted education work together to make informed decisions.
Reis, S., & Ruban, L. (2005). Services and Programs for Academically Talented Students with Learning Disabilities. Theory Into Practice, 44(2), 148-159. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3497033
Since the creation of the major legislative efforts related to students with disabilities and gifted students, and the initial work completed on twice-exceptional students (i.e., students who have both giftedness and learning disabilities), researchers and professionals have tried to identify the characteristics, needs, and appropriate services for this special population of students. An accumulated research base supports the need for a continuum of service options and intervention strategies for gifted students who may have mild, moderate, or more severe learning disabilities. This article provides a discussion of the intervention services for these students, emphasizing the importance of developing a wide range of compensation strategies, attending to their social and emotional needs, identifying elements of supportive environments, and providing talent development opportunities for students with learning disabilities who also have diverse gifts.
Ruban, L., & Reis, S. (2005). Identification and Assessment of Gifted Students with Learning Disabilities. Theory Into Practice,44(2), 115-124. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3497030
More is known about the characteristics and needs of gifted students with learning disabilities today than in the past, as more educators understand that children with high potential can simultaneously struggle with academic tasks at school. However, many of these students are not identified as requiring services, and if they are, it is for only 1 exceptionality. This absence of knowledge about the consequences of the coincidence of gifts and disabilities has resulted in misidentification and minimal services for many students. In this article, current identification and assessment practices are reviewed within a framework of a broadened view of giftedness; connections are made between identification and assessment, and the provision of appropriate interventions. The authors contend that a scholarly exchange of ideas in the fields of learning disabilities and giftedness can enable researchers and practitioners to discuss the best ways to translate research into practice to find the most appropriate methods to identify students with dual exceptionalities.
Weinfeld, R., Barnes-Robinson, L., Jeweler, S., & Shevitz, B. R. (2005). Enabling or Empowering? Adaptations and Accommodations for Twice-Exceptional Students. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 2(1). Retrieved February 28, 2019, from http://escholarship.bc.edu/education/tecplus
In order for gifted/learning disabled (GT/LD) students to effectively gain access to enriched and accelerated instruction, they often need to have appropriate adaptations and accommodations. Teachers, parents, and students have strong opinions and beliefs that influence which, if any, adaptations and accommodations they believe to be appropriate. As a result of two decades of experience with GT/LD students, the authors recognized that there is a difference in perception regarding the appropriateness of adaptations and accommodations, as well as differing beliefs about whether these adaptations and accommodations enable or empower students. This article addresses the different perceptions that parents, students, and teachers have regarding appropriate accommodations for twice-exceptional students. By collecting and analyzing data on attitudes toward appropriate adaptations and accommodations, the authors have developed guidelines for providing them to GT/LD students and action plans that empower these students to be successful learners. (Contains 7 figures.)
Reis, S. M., & Ruban, L. (2005). Services and programs for academically talented students with learning disabilities. Theory Into Practice, 44(2), 148-159.
This article provides a discussion of the intervention services for gifted students with learning disabilities, emphasizing the importance of developing a wide range of compensation strategies, attending to their social and emotional needs, identifying elements of supportive environments, and providing talent development opportunities for students with learning disabilities who also have diverse gifts.
Weinfeld, R., Barnes-Robinson, L., Jeweler, S., & Roffman Shevitz, B. (2005). Enabling or empowering? Adaptations and accommodations for twice-exceptional students. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 2(1), Article 6.
This article addresses the different perceptions that parents, students, and teachers have regarding appropriate accommodations for twice-exceptional students.
Assouline, S. G., & Whiteman, C. S. (2011). Twice-Exceptionality: Implications for School Psychologists in the Post-Idea 2004 Era. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 27(4), 380-402. Retrieved February 12, 2019, from http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals
Increased awareness of twice-exceptional students is important for all educators and psychologists; however, for school psychologists, improved understanding of twice-exceptionality will enhance their unique role in assessing twice-exceptional students and in recommending appropriate interventions in schools. In this article, the authors address giftedness and disability as separate topics and then connect them as they relate to twice-exceptionality. The authors explore twice-exceptionality in 3 separate case studies, with a specific focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and specific learning disability. The article includes a discussion of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act 2004, specifically as it relates to specific learning disability and giftedness. The authors conclude with 10 recommended practices that include the importance of a comprehensive evaluation to understand a student's strengths and weaknesses as well as the critical nature of differential diagnosis as a foundation for making recommendations for intervention. (Contains 1 table and 4 notes.)
Moon, S. M., & Reis, S. M. (2004). Acceleration and twice-exceptional students. In N. Colangelo, S. G. Assouline, & M. U. M. Gross (Eds.), A Nation Deceived: How Schools Hold Back America's Brightest Students (pp. 109-120). Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa.
Giftedness is an exceptionality -- something that is by definition different from the norm. Some gifted children are twice-exceptional. They are exceptional both because they are gifted and because they have one or more disabilities. Empirical research on twice-exceptional children has accumulated slowly, in part because educators have been slow to recognize that gifted children can have co-occurring disabilities, and in part because the small number of persons in the various subpopulations of twice-exceptional students creates logistical problems for researchers. Nonetheless, there are a number of published papers on twice-exceptional students that can be utilized to make recommendations for practice. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize the research on twice-exceptional students in order to make recommendations for accelerating these students.
Winebrenner, S. (2003). Teaching strategies for twice-exceptional students. Intervention in School and Clinic, 38(3) 131-137.
For many years, parents and teachers have been perplexed about youngsters who have dramatic learning strengths in some areas and equally dramatic learning weaknesses in others. These students appear to defy accurate labeling: Are they gifted or learning disabled? Finally, the debate has stopped, and educators are now recognizing these students as "twice-exceptional." Rather than trying to use evidence from their weak learning areas to prove they are not "truly gifted," savvy teachers are now learning how to allow these students to experience the same opportunities available for gifted students when they are learning in their strength areas. When students are learning in their areas of weakness, teachers are learning to provide the same compensation strategies used by other students with learning disabilities. This article offers specific instruction to empower teachers to effectively teach twice-exceptional students.
Baum, S. M., Cooper, C. R., & Neu, T. W. (2001). Dual differentiation: An approach for meeting the curricular needs of gifted students with learning disabilities. Psychology in the Schools, 38(5), 477-490.
Gifted students who experience difficulty with reading, mathematics, spelling, handwriting, and organization frequently become frustrated at an early age. Well-intentioned teachers attempt to remediate their weaknesses; yet, these youngsters still feel alone in the classroom. Moreover, their academic limitations often mask enormous talent, which seldom has an opportunity to surface. Thus, gifted learning-disabled students require curriculum that develops their special talents and provides them strategies to compensate for problematic weaknesses. This article discusses the dual characteristics of gifted learning-disabled students and suggests a unique curriculum that integrates both through talent development. Developed through Project HIGH HOPES, funded federally by the Javits Act (1993-1996), this dually differentiated curriculum offers strategies for addressing students' learning problems while fulfilling their need for sophisticated challenge through advanced-level content and a focus on solving authentic, real-world problems.
Reis, S. M., McGuire, J. M., & Neu, T. W. (2000). Compensation strategies used by high-ability students with learning disabilities who succeed in college. Gifted Child Quarterly, 44(2), 123-134.
A study of 12 high-ability young adults with
learning disabilities found they used the following compensatory strategies to
succeed in college: study strategies, cognitive/learning strategies,
compensatory supports, environmental accommodations, opportunities for
counseling, self-advocacy, and the development of an individual plan
incorporating a focus on metacognition and executive functions.
Cash, A. B. (1999). A profile of gifted individuals with autism:The twice‐exceptional learner. Roeper Review, 22(1), 22-27. doi:10.1080/02783199909553993
Following a brief introduction to autism, behaviors that connect individuals with autism and giftedness are explored. Biographical sketches are presented of gifted individuals who have autism and who struggle daily with discrepant strengths and weaknesses. The impact of giftedness on autism is discussed, along with implications for future growth and adjustment. (Author/CR)
Brody, L. E., & Mills, C. J. (1997). Gifted children with learning disabilities: a review of the issues. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(3), 282-286.
This article explores the current policies and practices with regard to defining, identifying, and educating this population. Recommendations are included that would help ensure that students who are gifted and have learning disabilities receive the intervention needed to help them achieve their full potential.
Johnsen, S. K., & Corn, A. L. (1989). The past, present, and future of education for gifted children with sensory and/or physical disabilities. Roeper Review, 12(1), 13-23.
The paper examines the historical background,
the current status, and the future possibilities of educational programming for
gifted children with sensory and/or physical disabilities. Discussed are
definitions, prevalence, child characteristics, identification methods, exemplary
programs, obstacles, and influential trends. A model is proposed for program
Gamble, H. W. (1985). A national survey of programs for intellectually and academically gifted hearing-impaired students. American Annals of the Deaf, 130(6), 508-518.
This study gathered information about the number and characteristics of existing programs for gifted hearing-impaired students. It also attempted to determine the number of students believed to be gifted in educational programs for hearing-impaired students that do not provide special gifted programs. Questionnaire responses were received from 16 gifted programs serving hearing-impaired school-age students in the United States. Data were analyzed to provide a quantitative assessment of the features of the reported gifted programs. Information obtained in this study suggests that only 15% of the 877 gifted hearing-impaired students reported are enrolled in special programs for the gifted. an unusually high percentage of the reported identified gifted students were residential students who came from families having two deaf parents.