This information was produced by the staff of the Belin-Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development (B-BC) at the University of Iowa (belinblank.org). The resources and information listed here are for informational purposes; there is no direct or implied endorsement by the B-BC. Services provided by the B-BC include programs for academically talented K-12 and college students, professional development for teachers, the Assessment and Counseling Clinic, the Acceleration Institute (accelerationinstitute.org), and graduate programs and research in gifted education.

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Annotated Bibliography

Articles are listed in descending order by year (most recent first), and then by first author's last name.

Talent Searches and Accelerated Programming

Dutkowsky, D. H., Evensky, J. M., & Edmonds, G. S. (2008). Should your high school adopt Advanced Placement or a concurrent enrollment program? An expected benefit approach. Retrieved June 4, 2008, from http://www-cpr.maxwell.syr.edu/efap/Publications/Should_Your_HSchool_Adopt.pdf

This study utilized simulations of an Expected Benefit model to quantitatively compare the relative benefits of two types of acceleration: Advanced Placement (AP) and Concurrent Enrollment Programs (CEP). While both AP and CEP can lead to high school students earning college credits for coursework completed while in high school, they differ in financial cost and the likelihood of obtaining college credit, thereby creating a need to compare the benefits of each. To answer the research question “What model should an individual high school choose to offer for its students?” the authors use Expected Benefit – defined as the likelihood of achieving college credit at a given cost – as their dependent variable. Expected Benefit is calculated based on a formula that the researchers created and the data used in the simulation are drawn from the College Board for the AP and from Syracuse University for the CEP. The results show that CEP placement is generally more appropriate for students who are planning on attending private undergraduate institutions and score within the average range on the AP test, while AP placement is generally more appropriate for students who have inexpensive access to a public undergraduate institution and/or score exceptionally well on the AP.

Hertberg-Davis, H., & Callahan, C. M. (2008). A narrow escape: Gifted students' perceptions of Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs. Gifted Child Quarterly, 52(3), 199-216.

In this qualitative study, 200 students from 23 high schools in seven states were interviewed about their experiences in Advanced Placement (AP) or International Baccalaureate (IB) courses. Hertberg-Davis and Callahan sought to understand how students enrolled in AP and IB courses perceive and evaluate their learning experiences in these classes.Based on the results of the interview data, the authors present five recommendations for serving gifted students through AP and IB programs:

  1. Emphasize the benefits of experiencing genuine challenge over other rewards for taking AP/IB courses.
  2. Provide AP and IB teachers with more consistent and comprehensive AP and IB training.
  3. Make achieving equity within AP and IB courses a priority.
  4. Train AP and IB teachers to deliver a differentiated curriculum using varied instructional strategies to meet the needs of a broad range of gifted students.
  5. Investigate options for gifted and talented secondary learners beyond AP and IB courses.

Lee, S.-Y., Matthews, M. S., & Olszewski-Kubilius, P. (2008). A national picture of talent search and talent search educational programs. Gifted Child Quarterly, 52(1), 55-69.

This article presents a comprehensive portrait of talent search testing and associated educational programs in the United States, now some 35 years after Dr. Julian Stanley originated the concept. Survey data from the six major talent search centers in the United States were used to examine the scope of talent search educational offerings, including accelerated summer, distance education, Saturday and weekend, and leadership programs. Reported data reveal that over 3 million students have participated in talent search testing since these programs' inception, and subsequently thousands of these students participate each year in other educational programs offered by these organizations. In addition to above-level test scores, data used to prequalify students to participate include on-level standardized achievement tests, teacher or parent nominations, and portfolios. Disproportional representations within talent search testing and educational programs by racial and household income levels were addressed with a need for more financial support and collaborative work between talent search centers and local schools for more students to benefit from the talent search model.

Kyburg, R. M., Hertberg-Davis, H., & Callahan, C. M. (2007). Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate programs: Optimal learning environments for talented minorities? Journal of Advanced Academics, 18(2), 172-215.

Kyburg, Hertberg-Davis, and Callahan conducted a qualitative research study based on interview and observation notes from three urban high schools with diverse populations on the east coast of the United States. The two research questions they sought to answer were:

  1. 1. Do AP and IB classrooms in high-poverty urban schools provide appropriate educational opportunities for gifted students from racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse backgrounds, as well as gifted English language learners?
  2. 2. What modifications to curriculum, instruction, and scaffolding in high-poverty urban schools allow students to experience a sense of success and develop a readiness to take on new challenges in college?
The study found that the success of these programs depended largely on the belief by teachers, administrators, and counselors that students could succeed in AP and IB programs. School personnel also need to make sure that other support systems are in place in order to help students succeed.

Matthews, M. S., & McBee, M. T. (2007). School factors and the underachievement of gifted students in a talent search summer program. Gifted Child Quarterly, 51(2), 167-181.

The topic of underachievement and how to reverse it has received a great deal of attention in the gifted education literature. The present study sought to add to the knowledge base on this issue by investigating the occurrence of underachievement behaviors and their predictors in a population of highly gifted students attending a summer educational program based on the talent search model. Results support qualitative findings in the literature, suggesting that educational interventions can be extremely effective in reversing the expression of underachieving behaviors.

Swiatek, M. A. (2007). The talent search model: Past, present, and future. Gifted Child Quarterly, 51(4), 320-329.

Typical standardized achievement tests cannot provide accurate information about gifted students' abilities because they are not challenging enough for such students. Talent searches solve this problem through above-level testing—using tests designed for older students to raise the ceiling for younger, gifted students. Currently, talent search programs serve gifted students from grades 2 through 8 throughout the mainland United States and in several foreign countries. Extensive research demonstrates that above-level test scores differentiate among levels of giftedness and have important implications for educational planning. Students with high scores learn advanced material rapidly and well and thrive in accelerated learning settings. Therefore, talent searches have followed up on testing with educational programs, many of which focus on acceleration. Decades of research have documented both academic and psychosocial benefits to participants. Perhaps the greatest challenge ahead of the talent searches is that of facilitating the appropriate education of gifted students in the school setting.

Lee, S.-Y., & Olszewski-Kubilius, P. (2006). Comparisons between talent search students qualifying via scores on standardized tests and via parent nomination. Roeper Review, 28(3), 157-166.

Talent search, developed by Dr. Julian Stanley at Johns Hopkins University, is a procedure for identifying talented youth (grades 3-8) through the use of an above-level test, such as the ACT, SAT, or EXPLORE (a test intended for 8th graders). Though there is research strongly supporting the benefits of involvement in talent search, there is disagreement about the best way to enter the process. Currently, two major ways of qualifying for talent search include achieving at the 95th percentile on a nationally-normed standardized test or a parent nomination. The authors note that standardized testing may lead to underrepresentation of some groups, including minorities, due to tests' heavy emphasis on verbal skills, themselves based on cultural experiences. This suggests that parent-norms may help correct underrepresentation. The authors’ main goals are to assess the demographic characteristics of students entering talent search via standardized testing versus parent nomination, determine whether the two groups score differently on above-level testing, and learn about factors associated with any differences in scores for the two groups. Results show that students qualifying via standardized tests scored slightly higher on the above-level tests than students who were parent-nominated. There were more Asian-American students in the parent-nominated group than the standardized testing group, though Asian-American students admitted via standardized testing scored 40 points higher on the above-level test than parent-nominated students. In addition, the authors found that parent nomination did not result in more low-income or underrepresented minorities being admitted to the talent search. The authors conclude that parent nominations can be a feasible alternative for identifying children for talent search testing, as parent-nominated students scored only slightly lower than standardized-test-identified children on the above-level test.

Mathews, J. (2006). Why AP matters. Newsweek, 147(19), 63-64.

This article discusses the increasing prevalence of Advanced Placement (AP) courses and International Baccalaureate (IB) programs in America's high schools. It also considers the formula Newsweek uses to create the "America's Best High Schools" list, and the importance of AP courses in many college prep charter schools.

Shaunessy, E., Suldo, S. M., Hardesty, R. B., & Shaffer, E. J. (2006). School functioning and psychological well-being of International Baccalaureate and general education students: A preliminary examination. The Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 17(2), 76-89.

The study aimed to explore the school and psychosocial functioning of 33 gifted and 89 high-achieving students enrolled in the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme compared to that of 176 general education students in the same school, a public high school located in a rural county in the southeastern United States. IB students who were not identified as gifted were categorized as high-achieving learners. The high school offered both an IB high school and a general education high school in a single school building, with each program having its own faculty and staff. The study tested the overall effect of group membership (IB-gifted, IB-high-achieving, or general education) on academic functioning, life satisfaction, and psychopathology. IB classes allow students to learn advanced content and skills at an age or grade earlier than expected, making them a form of acceleration. IB students tend to be highly self-motivated and meet or exceed school expectations, usually scoring above the 90th percentile on achievement tests. Much of the information was collected through a survey. Teachers in both parts of the high school sent home letters regarding the study. Students who returned signed parent consent forms then completed questionnaires in groups of fifty to one hundred. Indicators of adolescent functioning were organized in the following three areas: academic functioning, emotional distress, and psychological well-being. To assess academic functioning, the authors of the study use the School Climate Scale (SCS) and the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children (SEQ-C). Indicators of academic function were also ascertained from archival school records (GPA, attendance, and discipline referrals during the semester). To assess psychological well-being, the Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale, Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale, and The Youth Self-Report of the Child Behavior Checklist were administered. In four of six aspects of school climate, students in the IB program reported more positive perceptions of the crucial aspects of school climate than did their peers in the general education program. GPA, academic self-efficacy, attendance, and discipline referrals were significantly affected by group membership, with the strongest effect on GPA. Satisfaction with friends, self, school, living environment, and family were also significantly affected by group membership. In particular, gifted students in IB classes reported much higher levels of satisfaction with their friendships than their peers in general education. Psychopathology and problematic peer relations were significantly altered by group membership, with students in general education exhibiting more aggression and rule-breaking behaviors than either of other groups. While the benefits of the IB program appear to include superior social functioning and psychological wellness, it is difficult to determine whether these benefits were a byproduct of the well-planned IB program or a result of other factors (preexisting student characteristics, teacher expectations, etc.). The study lacks non-accelerated gifted students as a control, and so has little to say about the effects of not accelerating a gifted student. The study also is not necessarily generalizeable to other IB school programs or other advanced curriculum because of its limited and specific scope. More studies are necessary to better understand the effects of IB and other advanced curriculum on gifted and high-achieving students. Other limitations of the current study include the relatively small size of the gifted sample, the low rate of participation from the general education students, and the cross-sectional design. The authors suggest that, in addition to the training the IB program already provides in content-area test preparation and related exams, the program should provide training on the affective needs of gifted and high-ability students. The study’s authors conclude that the match between the academic demands of the IB program and the IB students’ abilities may have facilitated psychological wellness. Because students participating in an IB program showed similar or superior levels of psychosocial adjustment in comparison to general education peers, the IB program appears well-suited for gifted students and possibly all students with high achievement needs and academic values.

Taylor, M. L., & Porath, M. (2006). Reflections on the International Baccalaureate Program: Graduates' perspectives. The Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 17(3), 21-30.

This paper presents the results of a survey administered during the spring of 2005. At this time, graduates of the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program from two public schools in a large city in British Columbia, Canada, were asked to respond to 20 statements on a 4-point Likert-type scale, and to 7 open-ended questions. Graduates from the years 1996 and 2000 were selected. At the time of this survey, many of the graduates of 2000 were just finishing their undergraduate postsecondary programs, and the graduates of 1996 were settling into their chosen careers. Both groups were in a position to reflect on their experiences while they were in the program, and also to analyze the benefits of IB, if any, that they experienced during their postsecondary studies. Overall, graduates reported positive experiences in the program. They felt that the rich curriculum to which they were exposed, and the critical thinking and time management skills that they developed, were well worth the extra effort required to earn an IB diploma. Furthermore, they felt that the IB experience prepared them well for postsecondary studies.

Barnett, L. B., Albert, M. E., & Brody, L. E. (2005). The Center for Talented Youth Talent Search and academic programs. High Ability Studies, 16(1), 27-40.

The article describes the goals, programs, and methods of the Johns Hopkins University Center for Talented Youth (CTY), which seeks to identify and serve students with outstanding talent. CTY publicly recognizes exceptional students through newspaper articles and award ceremonies, which CTY hopes will motivate students and encourage schools to take action to challenge their students and reward academic excellence. In order to be eligible to participate in CTY programs, students must take an above grade level aptitude test through an annual talent search. CTY encourages those who score well compared with older students to both participate in CTY programs and seek advanced educational opportunities in their schools and communities. The CTY program is open to both American and international students. CTY programs, which serve students in grades two through eight, include family academic conferences, academic summer programs, one day programs, weekend programs, and week-long explorations. The academic summer programs focus on one subject intensively for three weeks. Courses are designed to challenge students in writing, humanities, engineering, computer science, mathematics, and science. Most of the summer programs are residential, allowing students to build a support network and bond with their intellectual peers.There are three talent searches, each of which uses a different test. The Talent search: Grades 7-8 uses the SAT I and gives students the option to take the Spatial Test Battery (STB) to supplement slightly lower SAT I scores. The Talent search: Grades 5-6 uses PLUS, which is similar to SAT I, and also offers the option of the STB to supplement slightly lower PLUS scores. The Elementary talent search uses the School and College Ability Test, or SCAT.Within CTY is the Center for Academic Advancement (CAA), which was developed for bright students who do not meet CTY’s admission requirements. Unlike most of CTY, the CAA program is designed for enrichment, not acceleration.

Brody, L. E. (2005). The study of exceptional talent. High Ability Studies, 16(1), 87-96.

The Study of Exceptional Talent (SET) identifies students who exhibit extremely advanced mathematical and/or verbal reasoning abilities and helps them find the challenging educational programs they need to achieve their full potential. Specifically, students who score 700-800 on the mathematical or verbal portion of SAT I before the age of 13 are invited to take advantage of SET's counseling and mentoring opportunities. An ongoing longitudinal study tracks the progress of these students, and their achievements to date have been exceptional. SET students, as a group, participate in a variety of accelerated programs, attend highly selective colleges and universities and earn advanced degrees in large numbers. Those who have embarked on their careers appear to be excelling in their chosen fields as well.

Klopfenstein, K., & Thomas, M. K. (2005, August). The link between Advanced Placement experience and college success. https://www.utdallas.edu/research/tsp-erc/pdf/wp_klopfenstein_2006_link_advanced_placement.pdf.pdf

This paper considers an effect Klopfenstein and Thomas label the “AP Arms Race,” which is the phenomenon of high school seniors taking more AP classes than they might under normal circumstances to weight their GPA. According to their discussion, seniors are more likely to enroll in AP courses than other rigorous college-preparatory courses because APs are often weighted-grade courses, which can raise a student’s class rank and overall GPA. Both class rank and GPA are considered by college admissions departments around the country. Data were collected from over 28,000 Texas high school graduates who attended 31 four-year Texas public institutions during the fall of 1999. The study defined early college success based on college GPA and measured college persistence as whether or not a student enrolled in the same institution for the 2000 academic school year.The results of the study found that, with the exception of Hispanic students who took AP science classes, participation in AP courses was no better an indicator of early college success or college persistence than enrolling in a rigorous college preparatory program.

Lee, S.-Y., & Olszewski-Kubilius, P. (2005). Investigation of high school credit and placement for summer coursework taken outside of local schools. Gifted Child Quarterly, 49(1), 37-50.

Lee and Olszewki-Kubilius administered a survey to 262 middle and secondary school administrators, soliciting information about the relationship between student participation in summer academic programming and high school credit and course placement for the following school year. The survey focused on how local schools recognize and respond to students’ summer work, what factors affect the ways in which local schools respond to outside-of-school courses, whether accreditation of a summer program alters responses of local schools to summer courses, whether there are differences between middle and high school administrators’ responses to gifted students’ summer coursework, and whether schools’ responses to summer coursework has changed over time.Of the respondents, 64.1% of high school students received high school credit after participating in such a program, and 41.9% of school administrators indicated the summer coursework was included as part of the student’s high school GPA. Twenty-six percent of school leaders said they placed students in an honors or more advanced course in the same subject area upon summer program completion. In contrast, middle school administrators indicated that they placed the summer evaluation forms in the student’s file, and 54.3% shared the evaluation form with the student’s teachers. Middle schools were less likely to accelerate students based on summer academic activities. Many administrators indicated the reason for this was lack of availability of advanced level courses offered at their school.

Olszewski-Kubilius, P., & Lee, S.-Y. (2005). How schools use talent search scores for gifted adolescents. Roeper Review, 27(4), 233-240.

This study examined the talent search program from the perspectives of local school officials who enroll their students in the program, a topic on which little research currently exists. Specifically, the authors were interested in the following issues and questions: (1) How do local schools learn about talent search and how do they encourage students to participate in it? (2) How do local schools serve students after they participate in talent search? What do they do with the test scores and how do they use them? (3) What impact does talent search have on the local school's work with gifted students? Does it affect their programs, classes, or curricula? (4) What differences exist between schools that actively participate in talent search versus those that are less active in terms of methods to involve students, follow-up after testing, use of scores, school services provided to students, and the like? This study confirmed that talent search is perceived by schools as a means of obtaining academic opportunities for gifted students, but primarily outside-of-school opportunities. The research indicates that talent search helps schools find appropriate courses, programs, and experiences outside of school for their students.

Stanley, J. C. (2005). A quiet revolution: Finding boys and girls who reason exceptionally well and/or verbally and helping them get the supplemental educational opportunities they need. High Ability Studies, 16(1), 5-14.

The antecedents for the four regional annual talent searches for boys and girls who reason exceptionally well mathematically and/or verbally began in 1971 at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD, with the creation of the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth' under the direction of the author of this article, its originator. Here he traces the development and expansion that led to much experimentation during the 1970s and the formation in 1979 of what is now called the Center for Talented Youth and similar progams based at three other private universities in the United Stated. These cover the entire USA and cooperate with educators in a number of foreign countries, especially England, Ireland, and Spain.

Wallace, P. (2005). Distance education for gifted students: Leveraging technology to expand academic options. High Ability Studies, 16(1), 77-86.

Technological advances and widespread access to the Internet are facilitating new educational approaches that go beyond the traditional face-to-face classroom setting. Distance education has emerged as a valuable option for a number of special populations of learners whose needs are more difficult to meet in the classroom, of which gifted students are one. This paper explores the many varieties of distance education and the technologies that support them and examines research on the effectiveness of the approaches in different settings. Research on the distance education programs offered by the Johns Hopkins University Center for Talented Youth is summarized and best practices, based on the findings, are proposed.

Geiser, S., & Santelices, V. (2004). The role of Advanced Placement and honors courses in college admissions. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.4.04.

Geiser and Santelices studied data from 81,445 students who enrolled at the University of California between 1998 and 2001 to look for relationships between enrollment in an AP course in high school and college performance and retention. Geiser and Santelices analyzed admissions data from the UC Corporate Student System for each student, as well as statewide information on California AP test-takers provided by the College Board. The study was initiated in response to the increasing weight placed on AP courses in “high stakes” admissions, or admissions at very selective institutions. The authors used regression analysis and controlled for factors such as socio-economic status and race. The findings of the study suggest that little to no relationship exists between enrollment in an AP or other honors course in high school and performance or retention in college. The findings did find a relationship between performance on the AP test at the completion of the course and performance in college. The report recommends that admissions requirements include minimum AP exam scores (instead of credit for merely completing an AP course), that schools consider AP/honors coursework within a local context, and that AP/honors coursework carry less weight in admissions.

Olszewski-Kubilius, P., & Lee, S.-Y. (2004). Gifted adolescents' talent development through distance learning. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 28(1), 7-35.

This study sought to gain information about students’ experiences in distance learning honors and AP courses. The focus questions of this study were:

  1. Why do talented students take distance-learning courses, and for what do they use distance education? Do they take courses to supplement their school program? To accelerate? For personal enrichment?
  2. Were students satisfied with their distance-education course? What were sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction?
  3. How do students perform in the distance-learning classes and on subsequent AP examinations?
  4. How are distance-education courses received by students’ schools? Do the students receive high school credit for them? Do they appear on high school transcripts? Are their grades factored into their GPAs?
One hundred eighty-five students participating in honors and AP courses offered through the Center for Talent Development completed a survey for this study. The outcomes of the study highlighted academic challenge and high expectations as strengths of the distance education service, according to the students. The shortcomings of the program included the fact that fewer than half of the participants earned credit at their school for participating in the program as well as the absence of subsequent course offerings in the area of interest.

Olszewski-Kubilius, P., & Lee, S.-Y. (2004). Parent perceptions of the effects of the Saturday Enrichment Program on gifted students' talent development. Roeper Review, 26(3), 156-165.

Based on survey responses from 187 parents of students who attended the Saturday Enrichment Program (SEP) at the Center for Talent Development (CTD) of Northwestern University, this study showed that overall, parents perceived favorable effects of the program on their children's talent development, especially academic talent development. As a result of participation in the CTD program, parents perceived that their children gained scholastic skills or knowledge, were more motivated to learn and interested in the subject areas they studied, and gained academic competence. After the program, parents had higher academic expectations for their children. Parents felt positively about instructional aspects of the program such as focusing on a single subject in depth and breadth, experiencing interdisciplinary perspectives across subject areas, and having experiential learning opportunities. They also perceived that the SEP classes provided their children with both challenge and enjoyment. Despite the perceived benefits of SEP, results also showed that the majority of parents were still reluctant to pursue additional further educational actions inside or outside of school for their children after completing the program. However, of those who contacted their children's local schools, almost half said that their children received more challenging work (e.g., accepted and/or placed into advanced enrichment programs or other gifted programs/groupings in school, recommended for gifted programs, given additional materials or work, or skipped grades) as a result.

Olszewski-Kubilius, P., & Lee, S.-Y. (2004). The role of participation in in-school and outside-of-school activities in the talent development of gifted students. The Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 15(3), 107-123.

Based on survey responses from 230 students enrolled in a summer gifted program at a university, this study gives a description of gifted students’ participation in extracurricular activities in and outside of school. Findings show that gifted students were more involved in competitions, clubs, or other extracurricular activities in mathematics than in other subject areas and were the least involved in computer science activities. Sports were the most frequent extracurricular and outside-of-school activities, as well as playing and working with computers. The data reveal some gender-stereotypical tendencies regarding participation in and outside-of-school activities and gender-typical patterns of support from parents. Grade and course differences were also found. Contributions this study makes to the existing literature are to assess the consonance of children's participation in outside-of-school and extracurricular activities with their talent area and to document empirically parental involvement and independent home study for gifted adolescents.

Eimers, M. T., & Mullen, R. (2003, May). Dual credit and Advanced Placement: Do they help prepare students for success in college? Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Institutional Research Conference, Tampa, FL.

Eimers and Mullen examine the relationship between high school completion of an Advanced Placement (AP) or dual credit course and college GPA and retention. The study controlled for academic ability and addressed three questions:

  • Is there a difference in first-year college grade point average (GPA) between students who had no prior experience with AP or dual credit and students who did receive credit in AP or dual credit courses?
  • Is there a difference in first-year college retention between students who entered college with no college credit and students who entered college with dual credit or AP credits?
  • Is there a relationship between the source of dual credit courses and first-year college grade point average or first-year retention?
The study included 7,913 first-year college students who had recently graduated from high school and were students at one campus of the University of Missouri’s four-campus system. Linear regression was used to answer each of the research questions. Approximately 28% of the variance in first year GPA was attributed to participation in AP or dual credit courses. Similarly, students enrolled in dual credit or AP courses were more likely to return to college for a second year.

Jarosewich, T., & Stocking, V. B. (2003). Talent search: Student and parent perceptions of out-of-level testing. The Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 14(3), 137-150.

Every year, hundreds of thousands of academically gifted 7th- and 8th-grade students participate in 1 of 4 regional or several local talent searches, through which they take the ACT or SAT as an out-of-level test. Participation in a talent search offers young students the opportunity to learn about their abilities, practice taking the standardized test they will eventually take for college admittance, obtain information about educational opportunities, and become eligible for rigorous summer and weekend education programs with similarly gifted peers. Very little information is available from the perspectives of students and parents regarding what it is like to take these tests as a 7th or 8th grader. We surveyed 909 students and their parents about their reasons for participating in one of the regional talent searches, the ways in which they prepared for the test, and their feelings while taking the test. Results suggest that students participated in the talent search primarily to gain experience taking the test and to learn about their abilities. Students and parents reported that taking the test was a positive experience for the student. Parents reported being proud that their children were invited to take the test and felt that participation was an honor.

Lupkowski-Shoplik, A., Benbow, C., Assouline, S., & Brody, L. (2002). Talent searches: Meeting the needs of academically talented youth. In N. Colangelo & G. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Gifted Education, 3rd edition (pp/ 204-218). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

This chapter describes how the Talent Search model, founded by Julian C. Stanley, identifies the academically gifted.

Rotigel, J. V., & Lupkowski-Shoplik, A. (1999). Using talent searches to identify and meet the educational needs of mathematically talented youngsters. School Science and Mathematics, 99(6), 330-337.

Regional talent searches have been available since Julian Stanley developed the Talent Search model in the early 1970s, and over 200,000 students per year nationwide take advantage of the opportunities these university-based programs offer. The above-level testing offered by regional talent searches is useful in (a) identifying mathematically talented students, (b) tailoring educational recommendations to the abilities of the students, and (c) providing challenging educational opportunities for the students. Important considerations and concerns, as well as a discussion of the benefits, are explored in this article.

McCarthy, C. R. (1998). Assimilating the talent search model into the school day. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 9(3), 114-123.

Describes a multi-district/higher-education collaborative model that incorporates the talent-search model within the school-year schedule. Content acceleration and fast-paced instruction are assimilated into students' regular school day. In 180 hours of instruction over two school years, middle school students complete four years of high-school mathematics and advanced-placement English.

Reis, S. M., Westberg, K. L., Kulikowich, J. M., & Purcell, J. H. (1998). Curriculum compacting and achievement test scores: What does the research say? Gifted Child Quarterly, 42(2), 123-129.

Examined the effects of curriculum compacting on the achievement test scores of a national sample of 336 high ability students from second through sixth grade heterogeneous classrooms in rural, suburban, and urban settings. Teachers from three treatment and control groups in this experimental study selected one to two students from their classes who demonstrated superior ability and advanced content knowledge prior to instruction. They were able to eliminate between 40-50% of curricula for these students across content areas. Pre- and post- student achievement was examined using the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, and out-of-grade-level (one grade higher) tests were used to guard against ceiling effects. Results indicate that the achievement test scores of students whose curriculum was compacted did not differ significantly from students whose curriculum was not compacted.

McConnaha, W. R. (1997). An analysis of dual enrollment as an acceleration option for high school students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 58(3-A). U.S.: University Microfilms International.

The purpose of this study was to provide a psychoeducational portrayal of students who selected dual enrollment as an educational option. This research was conducted to compare the relationship between the program components of background and characteristics, academic and logistical decisions, social and behavioral impact, and attitude and self-concept of dual enrollment students. The study also assessed if these students were being accelerated at a pace and level which they viewed as contributing to their academic and social success. The primary data collection activities involved semi-structured interviews of twenty high school students involved in dual enrollment. All questions were designed to be open-ended and to stimulate further activity or thought. All interviews were based on a semi-structured protocol. This loosely crafted instrument was designed to accommodate a funneling technique. These data, along with secondary sources of information including informal interviews with the students' high school and university instructors, counselors and parents were also analyzed. A combination of procedures was used in the analysis of data gathered during this study. Included were analytical procedures associated with pattern coding and memorizing. These procedures were utilized during the data-gathering phase. Following the collection of data, but before an attempt was made to display the conclusions, triangulation was used to assess data trustworthiness. Finally, the data was displayed using an informant-by-variable matrix. An examination of the results of this analysis led to the conclusions that students participating in dual enrollment as a form of acceleration were highly motivated. These students also possessed positive attitudes and self-concepts. However, participation in dual enrollment had a negative social and behavioral impact on most of the students' lives. Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between the decisions to participate in dual enrollment.

Enersen, D. (1996). Developing talent in Saturday and summer programs. Gifted Education International, 11(3), 159-163.

This article examines the role of mentors in providing individual tutoring and support in the field of creative writing. Mentors are not only involved in the intellectual development of potential writers but also in their emotional development. The writer outlines a mentorship program in Singapore.

Olszewski-Kubilius, P., Laubscher, L., Wohl, V., & Grant, B. (1996). Issues and factors involved in credit and placement for accelerated summer coursework. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 8(1), 5-15.

Examines ways in which the home schools of 287 gifted students credited students' participation in accelerated high school courses sponsored by university summer programs. After program accreditation, the number of positive responses by the students' schools increased significantly, including giving course credit, appropriate placement within the content area, and placement in a special program.

Rothschild, E. (1995). Aspiration, performance, reward: The Advanced Placement Program at 40. College Board Review, 176-177, 24-32.

The history of the College Entrance Examination Board's Advanced Placement Program is chronicled from its inception in 1951 through early developmental stages and 40 years of implementation. Issues discussed include test development, funding, administration at the institutional level, expansion of curriculum areas and testing options, teacher involvement, and inclusion of precocious youth in instructional and testing programs.

Reis, S. M., & Purcell, J. H. (1993). An analysis of content elimination and strategies used by elementary classroom teachers in the curriculum compacting process. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 16(2), 147-170.

This study examined effects of three increasing levels of curriculum compacting on the instructional practices of 470 elementary school teachers with gifted students in regular classes. Teachers were able to eliminate between 24% and 70% of the curriculum across content areas for more capable students but required assistance in designing challenging replacement activities.

Reis, S., et al. (1993). Why not let high ability students start school in January? The curriculum compacting study (Research Monograph 93106). Storrs, CT: National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented.

This study examined the effects of curriculum compacting, a curriculum modification technique for gifted and talented students, with approximately 436 elementary teachers and 783 students in 27 school districts throughout the United States. The study was designed to investigate the types and amount of curriculum content that could be eliminated for high ability students by teachers who received various levels of staff development. It also examined effects of curriculum compacting on students' achievement, content area preferences, and attitudes toward learning. Teachers were randomly assigned to one of four groups, three treatment groups that received increasing levels of staff development or a control group. After receiving staff development services, teachers in each of the treatment groups implemented curriculum compacting for one or two high ability students in their classrooms. A battery of pre/post achievement tests and a questionnaire regarding attitude toward learning were administered to identified students. Results indicated that the compacting process can be implemented in a wide variety of settings with positive effects for both students and teachers. Results also identified effective and efficient methods for training teachers to make appropriate curricular modifications for gifted and talented students. Appendices provide information on treatment and control group instrumentation and eight statistical tables.

Reis, S. M., & Renzulli, J. S. (1992). Using curriculum compacting to challenge the above-average. Educational Leadership, 50(2), 51-57.

A major problem facing schools is lack of curricular differentiation and academic challenge for the most academically able students. Also, contemporary textbooks have been "dumbed down." Curriculum compacting is a flexible, research-based technique enabling high-ability students to skip work they already know and substitute more challenging content. A recent study and program development advice are included.

Stanley, J. C. (1990). Leta Hollingsworth's contributions to above-level testing of the gifted. Roeper Review, 12(3), 166-171.

The pioneering work of Leta Hollingsworth (1886-1939) in using above-level testing with highly intellectually talented young people is recounted and related to contemporary activities of the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth.

VanTassel-Baska, J. (1983). Profiles of precocity: the 1982 mid-west talent search finalist. Gifted Child Quarterly, 27(3), 139-144.

This article provides general profiles of the 1982 Midwest talent search finalists. It includes personal data such as hobbies, favorite subject, and birth order. It also includes data about their parents and educational opportunities. The most-selected areas in which the participants sensed their outstanding accomplishment were math and music. Almost half of participants wanted to continue their education to the doctorate level. The most popular future careers were in computer-related areas. In the discussion section, VanTassel-Baska reveals two concerns. First, although parents perceived that their students’ educations were generally satisfactory, parents revealed some negative attitudes toward acceleration. Second, some students had a low perception of their own ability.

Benbow, C.P., & Stanley, J.C. (1980). Intellectually talented students: family profiles. Gifted Child Quarterly, 24(3), 119-122.

This article provides the family profiles of 873 participants in the 1976 talent search program along with the SMPY (Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth). The results show that fathers’ occupational status tended to be high-level and family size was higher than the national mean at that time. Fathers’ educational levels were correlated with students’ ability more strongly than mothers’, and this correlation was stronger among male students. Scores on the mathematical section of the SAT were more related to parents’ educational level than verbal scores on the SAT.

Plowman, P. D., & Rice, J. P. (1967). Demonstration of differential programming in enrichment, acceleration, counseling, and special classes for gifted pupils in grades 1-9 (Final Report). Sacramento, CA: State Department of Education.

California Project Talent was a three-and-one-half-year project that demonstrated four types of programs for gifted children and youth. The enrichment demonstration analyzed the needs for in-service training of teachers and developed appropriate workshops and also invented, field tested, and disseminated special pupil units in (1) scientific discovery, methodology, and investigation through a study of graphic representation of statistical information using the Bloom Taxonomy, (2) creative expression through a study of the literary element of characterization using Guilford's Structure of Intellect model, and (3) critical appreciation through a study of the fundamental forms of music using Burner's process of education. The acceleration demonstration involved individual placement procedures and accelerated pupils from grades 2 to 4 by using a special summer session and by employing extensive case studies, counseling, and tutoring. The counseling- instructional demonstration showed interrelated goals, processes, and contents of English, social sciences, guidance, and small group counseling designed to improve communication skills, encourage development of values and philosophy of life, and promote more effective learning in social sciences and in English in grades 7 to 9. The special class demonstration showed the unique value of the all day, full week special class setting in improving problem solving, the ability to apply facts and principles, and insight into the nature of learning. Overall, (1) four new programs were invented, adopted, demonstrated, and disseminated, (2) related consultant, teacher, and counselor roles were described, (3) products produced included a film series, filmstrip, and program guidelines, and (4) gifted child programs were promoted, enriched, and expanded. A reference list cites 62 items. Appendices provide project reports and case studies, list project developed films and guidelines, and present research related materials.