Articles are listed in descending order by year (most recent first), and then by first author's last name.
Hertzog, N. B., & Chung, R. U. (2015). Outcomes for students on a fast track to college: Early college entrance programs at the University of Washington. Roeper Review, 37(1), 39-49.
This article shares specifics of the early entrance programs at the University of Washington and reports the preliminary results of the 35th-year follow-up study of the Early Entrance Program and the first alumni study of the UW Academy for Young Scholars. Findings relate to graduates’ personal, academic, and professional lives since they graduated from the university.
Howley, A., Howley, M. D., Howley, C. B., & Duncan, T. (2013). Early college and dual enrollment challenges: Inroads and impediments to access. Journal of Advanced Academics, 24(2), 77-107.
In recent years, some school reformers have come to see early college and dual enrollment as mechanisms for increasing the academic engagement and performance of a range of students beyond those exhibiting high academic achievement or ability. Despite purported benefits, research on the dynamics of such programs is limited. This case study adds to the relevant literature by using semistructured interviews with key participants to investigate the cross-institutional dynamics enabling and constraining the early college and dual enrollment arrangements sponsored by a consortium of high schools and colleges in a Midwestern state. Qualitative data analysis surfaced four salient themes explaining patterns of interaction across the partnering institutions: Organizational Conditions and Motives, Border Crossers, Organizational Power Dynamics, and Personal Attitudes Regarding Early College and Dual Enrollment.
Waits, T., Setzer, J. C., & Lewis, L. (2013). Dual credit and exam-based courses in U.S. public high schools: 2010-11. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics.
This report provides nationally representative data on the prevalence and characteristics of dual-credit and exam-based courses in public high schools. The study presented in this report collected information from public high schools with grade 11 or 12 about dual credit and exam-based courses for high school students in the 2010-11 school year.
The report is available here.
Solow, R., & Rhodes, C. (2012). College at 13: Young, gifted, and purposeful. Tucson, AZ: Great Potential Press.
"What is it like to be 13 and going to college? Is such radical acceleration helpful or harmful? This book describes 14 highly gifted young women, now in their 30s, who left home to attend college at age 13 to 16, skipping all or most of high school. The authors describe what the women were like as young college students; the leadership, idealism, and sense of purposefulness they developed, and their lives 10 to 13 years later. This inspirational book will help educators and parents understand that gifted kids need academic challenge, that there are colleges with specific programs for such students, that it doesn’t harm them to leave home early, that keeping them interested in learning is vitally important." (Summary from book cover)
Boazman, J., & Sayler, M. (2011). Personal well-being of gifted students following participation in an early college-entrance program. Roeper Review, 33(2), 76-85.
Boazman and Sayler examine life satisfaction and associated factors of gifted students who participated in an early college entrance program. Students reported higher levels of self-efficacy, satisfaction with their achievements, personal safety, and future security than non-accelerated age peers. The authors conclude that gifted students who enter college early are likely to thrive.
Noble, K. D., & Childers, S. A. (2009). Swimming in deep waters: 20 years of research about early university entrance at the University of Washington. In L. Shavinina (Ed.), International Handbook on Giftedness (pp. 1345-1364). Amsterdam: Springer Science and Business Media.
Radical acceleration from secondary school to university is an unusual educational option in the United States of America, yet it is one that more than 500 gifted young scholars have chosen at the University of Washington in Seattle since the inception of the Early Entrance program in 1977 and the UW Academy for Young Scholars in 2001. From the beginning, research, using multiple methodologies, has carefully guided the evolution of these programs. The findings from these studies and recommendations for viable and successful early entrance programs are discussed in the context of early entrants' intellectual, emotional and social needs.
Peters, S. J., & Mann, R. L. (2009). Getting ahead: Current secondary and postsecondary acceleration options for high-ability students in Indiana. Journal of Advanced Academics, 20(4), 630-660.
Gifted education programs at the secondary level have yet to receive as much attention as those at the primary and elementary levels. The 2007 State of the States Report found that AP courses remain the most common means of addressing the needs of high-ability high school students. This study presents the current state of high-ability programming in Indiana high schools with special attention to dual-credit and IB programs. Survey data were collected on the policies and offerings of 87% of the states school corporations. The data suggest that even though almost 90% of corporations offer dual-credit courses and 4% offer IB programs, AP courses remain the primary source of high school programming. The data also indicate that 70% of school corporations require students to exhibit high levels of performance in past coursework or on standardized tests to participate in these programs. Implications for such requirements are that they may prevent underachieving high-ability students from gaining access to the coursework from which they would benefit to be successful in an academic setting.
Shepard, S. J., Nicpon, M. F., & Doobay, A. F. (2009). Early entrance to college and self-concept: Comparisons across the first semester of enrollment. Journal of Advanced Academics, 21(1), 40-57.
You can read the full article here.
Lynch, R. L., & Hill, F. (2008). Dual enrollment in Georgia’s high schools and technical colleges. Techniques. Retrieved October 11, 2010 from http://www.acteonline.org.
The article highlights the findings of a multiphase, mixed methods study conducted from 2003-2006 about the impact of credit-based transition programs on college access and success for students participants. The original study was conducted by the Technical College System of Georgia, the Georgia Department of Education, and the University System of Georgia. Lynch and Hill focused their research specifically on dual enrollment of high school students in technical colleges and their transition to a public college or university. 17,442 high school students participated in this study. High school-technical college dual enrollment increased 93% during the three-year period of the study. In general, enrollees mirrored the high school population as a whole, with the greatest increase among students from low-income groups. Ninety-one percent of high school dual enrolled students earned an A, B or C in their technical college coursework, which indicates that nearly all were capable of successfully completing college-level coursework.
Marcy, M. B. (2008). The early college moment. Retrieved November 20, 2008, from Bard College at Simon's Rock, Newsroom Web site: https://www.simons-rock.edu/newsroom/newsroom-archive/perspectives/early-college-moment
This editorial was written for the periodical Perspectives, published at Bard’s College. Marcy discusses the historical context of education in the United States through the college level, as well as what she calls the “tunnel” of education, which requires strict conformity up until college, when options are nearly limitless. In contrast, a “funnel” model would challenge students based on their levels of motivation and ability. Through the discussion Marcy highlights problems in American education, in particular the standardization of education as a way to keep students out of the work force for longer periods of time. This widely accepted practice, Marcy argues, is the reason more students are kept from entering college at a younger age.
Morrison, M. C. (2008). The strategic value of dual enrollment programs. Techniques: Connecting education and careers, 83(7), 26-27.
This brief report summarizes research conducted at North Iowa Area Community College (NIACC) regarding the value and benefits of acceleration.
The full article can be found here.
Noble, K. D., & Childers, S. A. (2008). A passion for learning: The theory and practice of optimal match at the University of Washington. Journal of Advanced Academics, 19(2), 236-270.
The University of Washington has two programs allowing students early entrance to the university. Both programs are aimed at offering academic acceleration to students who, based on collected data, are prepared to enter college before the typical age. Noble and Childers conducted a study with the participants of both programs in 2008. Thirty-two students in the Early Entrance Program (EEP) and 70 students in the Academy for Young Scholars participated in the study by completing a 30-question survey. The purpose of the study was to address the following questions:
1) Why did respondents choose to enter university early? What were their primary motivations? Were there differences between respondents in the two groups?
2) How did students assess the transition and support services available to them in their respective programs? What distinguished students who were satisfied from those who were not?
3) What academic and extracurricular activities did students engage in as undergraduates? How did they describe their own talents and abilities?
Responses from the surveys indicated that the majority of students in both programs entered the program because they were excited to learn. Many students gave examples of times they were bored with their high school coursework. Seventy-three percent of participants in EEP and 50% of participants in the Academy indicated that support services offered at the University were helpful in assisting them with their transition from secondary school to college. Additionally, 83% of all respondents indicated an interest in a variety of extracurricular activities. Findings from this study include recommendations for support services for students, parents, and university personnel to further assist students in making the transition from secondary school to early entrance to university programs.
Noble, K. D., Childers, S. A., & Vaughan, R. C. (2008). A place to be celebrated and understood: The impact of early university entrance from parents' points of view. Gifted Child Quarterly, 52(3), 256-268.
Nobel, Childers, and Vaughan contacted parents of students enrolled in one of two University of Washington early entrance programs (the Early Entrance Program or the Academy for Young Scholars) to anonymously participate in a study about their perception of the programs. Sixty-four families returned the 25-question survey. Survey questions were a combination of Likert scale and free response questions. All survey questions focused on six principle questions identified by the researchers:
Results of the study indicated that the change in orientation and support staff for the programs in recent years have been largely successful, as all parents participating in the study indicated they were happy with the early entrance programs offered at the University of Washington. Additions to the programs include a bridge program, in which students have a year of instruction meant to bridge the gap between middle school and college and a mentorship program, in which new early entrance students are paired with early entrance students who have been part of the program.
- 1. What factors were important to parents in choosing to enroll their children in the EEP or the Academy?
- 2. When the student first enrolled full-time at the UW, what issues were parents most concerned about? Were those concerns realized?
- 3. Has the student’s participation in the EEP or the Academy changed the family rules or norms? How has participation affected the student’s relationship with siblings and extended family members?
- 4. How did family and friends react to the decision to enroll the student in the EEP or the Academy?
- 5. What are parents’ educational and career aspirations for their children? Is there something that parents wish their children were doing differently?
- 6. How satisfied are parents with the EEP or the Academy? What are the advantages and disadvantages of early university entrance from a parental perspective? What advice would parents give to other parents considering the EEP of the Academy for their students?
Swanson, J. L. (2008). An analysis of the impact of high school dual enrollment course participation on post-secondary academic success, persistence, and degree completion. Executive summary, University of Iowa, College of Education.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of high school students' participation in dual enrollment courses upon college persistence and degree attainment. The study also investigated possible socializing effects of participating in college equivalent courses before formal matriculation into post-secondary education, through the use of variables identifying students' educational anticipations and persistence outcomes.
The executive summary can be found here.
Van der Werf, M. (2008). A school for unsqueaky wheels. Chronicle of Higher Education, 54(26), A8.
The Davidson Academy of Nevada may have one of the most-intelligent student bodies in America, with each student required to be in the 99th percentile on IQ or achievement tests. But these kids need room to run and jump and have someone to talk to as much as any middle schooler. The 44 students now at the academy are at the precarious stage of early adolescence. Founded two years ago to serve profoundly gifted children, Academy students attend Davidson and the University of Nevada simultaneously, some earning nearly two years' worth of credits toward a bachelor's degree by the time they finish high school. Administrators say they have learned they are in charge of a social experiment, almost as much as of a school, and there is constant tension between the ages of students and the influences they might be exposed to on a college campus. Individual learning plans are developed for each student, but many parents say they have learned to trust their children's maturity when it comes to controversial material. The Academy is expected to grow to about 80 students this fall, and the founders hope to expand the school to as many as 300 students, and then may open other locations. "We might do two or three more some day, but that would be it," says founder Bob Davidson. By definition, only 1 in about 30,000 children can qualify for admittance. "There wouldn't be enough children around to fill all the seats."
Karp, M. M., Calcagno, J. C., Hughes, K .L., Jeong, D. W., & Bailey, T. R. (2007). The postsecondary achievement of participants in dual enrollment: An analysis of students outcomes in two states. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, National Research Center for Career and Technical Education.
This report addresses the impact of dual enrollment in career and technical education (CTE) programs on students in the state of Florida and in New York City. The research questions addressed in the study are:
This study found that participation in dual enrollment increased the likelihood of earning a high school diploma. Participation in dual enrollment courses was also positively related to enrollment in college for all students and was positively related to staying enrolled in college for a second semester. In New York, male students and low socioeconomic status students benefited from dual enrollment participation.
- What are the short-term effects of participation in a dual enrollment program, for all students and for CTE students, as measured by high school graduation and college enrollment rates?
- What are the effects of participation in a dual enrollment program on all students’ and CTE students’ initial entry into postsecondary education as measured by enrollment intensity, first-semester GPA, and persistence to the second semester?
- What the long-term effects of participation in dual enrollment for all students and for CTE students, as measured by their persistence into the second year of postsecondary education, GPA, and credit accumulation?
- Do program effects vary by race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, or number of dual enrollment courses taken?
Museus, S. D., Lutovsky, B. R., & Colbeck, C. L. (2007). Access and equity in dual enrollment programs: Implications for policy formation. Higher Education in Review, 4, 1-19.
This study examined participation in dual enrollment programs in Pennsylvania. In particular, the authors were interested in whether or not more underrepresented students in post-secondary education were participating dual enrollment programs in high school. Data was collected from 42 state and private 2- and 4-year institutions in the state. A one-page questionnaire was administered to schools soliciting information about the demographics of students currently enrolled in dual credit programs. All data was collected during the 2003-2004 school year. Findings from the study showed that disproportionately high numbers of white, Asian, and upper middle-class students were taking advantage of dual enrollment opportunities in high school. Museus, Lutovsky, and Colbeck offer policy recommendations to encourage more underrepresented populations of students to take advantage of dual enrollment opportunities. They suggest including equity assurance in the programs’ intended outcomes, tailoring programs to ensure they reach all intended stakeholders, allocating resources to remove financial barriers to participation for economically disadvantages students, encouraging incorporation of articulation agreement information into academic advising of dually enrolled students, considering the importance of long-term data collection, and conducting continuous assessment of dual enrollment programs.
Noble, K. D., Vaughan, R. C., Chan, C., Childers, S., Chow, B., Federow, A., et al. (2007). Love and work: The legacy of early university entrance. Gifted Child Quarterly, 51(2), 152-166.
Ninety-five students who had participated in the Early Entrance Program at the University of Washington prior to 2003 completed a 100-item questionnaire for this research study. The questionnaire asked participants about their educational and work experiences, as well as their friendships and love relationships. The four questions guiding this study were:
The majority of respondents indicated they participated in the EEP because they were excited to learn. Many of the participants indicated that while enrolled at the University of Washington, the majority of their friends were other students who had entered college as part of the EEP. Most of the students participating in this research study went on to obtain an education beyond an undergraduate degree. Finally, intelligence was the most important trait participants sought in both friendly and romantic relationships.
- 1. Why did students choose to participate in the EEP? What aspects of the EEP experience did students find especially beneficial and/or detrimental, personally and professionally?
- 2. What are participants’ perceptions of the effects of the EEP on their social development over time, specifically with regard to friendships and romantic relationships?
- 3. What are participants choosing to do with their lives? Do they feel they are living up to their own and their parents’ expectations?
- 4. What are the most important traits that respondents look for when choosing romantic partners and friends? What are the most important values that they seek in employment? What gives them a sense of meaning and purpose in life?
Born, T. (2006). Middle and early college high schools: Providing multilevel support and accelerated learning. New Directions for Community Colleges, 135, 49-58.
Middle and early college high schools offer traditionally under-served students the opportunity to simultaneously engage in high school and college classes, with the goal of attaining both a high school diploma and an associate degree within 5 years. This chapter describes how two such schools support students as they confront the complexities of their education an personal lives.
The full chapter can be found here.
Plucker, J. A., Chien, R. W., & Zaman, K. (2006). Enriching the high school curriculum through postsecondary credit-based transition programs (Education Policy Brief Volume 4, Number 2). Bloomington, IN: Center for Evaluation and Education Policy.
This policy brief discusses the importance and types of postsecondary credit-based transition programs, national efforts supporting dual credit programs, and program trends across the state of Indiana and across the country.
It can be found here.
Allen, J. (2005). The Ford boys. On Wisconsin, 30-35.
In the 1950s, the Ford Foundation sent two hundred high school students to college. Some were as young as fifteen, an age at which most believed no student would be emotionally or academically ready for college.
Dougan, C. (2005). The pitfalls of college courses for high-school students. Chronicle of Higher Education, 52(10), B20.
In this editorial Dougan highlights problems with allowing high school students to enroll in dual credit college courses during their junior and senior years of high school. Of the many criticisms she offers, she discusses her idea of the “pitcher principle.” Dougan asserts that when schools are willing to allow students to take dual credit courses while still in high school, they view students’ learning as learning material when they are “filled up” with knowledge. In other words, the pitcher principle means that if students do enough seat time, they should be rewarded with a degree. Dougan says high schools should be better preparing students to be critical and creative thinkers, as opposed to allowing them to enroll in dual credit programs.
Harnish, D., & Lynch, R. L. (2005). Secondary to postsecondary technical education transitions: An exploratory study of dual enrollment in Georgia. Career and Technical Information Research, 30(3), 169-188.
This article uses data provided by the Georgia Department of Education to address the following research questions:
These questions were addressed using a qualitative case study method. The samples for this study were non-random purposeful samples that included a technical college, with all of its satellite locations and two high schools currently enrolling students in dual credit courses from the college. The research concluded, among other findings, that nearly 70% of students enrolled in dual credit courses classified themselves as high achieving. The majority of students also planned to attend a post-secondary institution. The two main sources of motivation for students who dual enroll are acquisition of college credit and increased earning potential after high school graduation.
- How does dual enrollment facilitate success in postsecondary education for participating students?
- What other impacts has dual enrollment had on participating students?
- Who is being served by dual enrollment in Georgia?
- Why is dual enrollment offered, and why do students enroll?
- What facilitates or discourages student participation in dual enrollment?
- How is dual enrollment organized and administered?
- Who teaches dual enrollment and how appropriate are their qualifications?
- How is dual enrollment funded in Georgia and what effects does this have on participation in dual enrollment?
- What issues have emerged from this study of dual enrollment in Georgia?
Hoffman, N. (2005, April). Add and subtract: Dual enrollment as a state strategy to increase postsecondary success for underrepresented students. Boston: Jobs for the Future.
According to Hoffman, this document serves as a “policy primer for states wishing to implement dual enrollment as a strategy for increasing college completion rates of underrepresented students.” Information for this guide was collected from case studies involving dual enrollment programs offered in Florida and Utah, as well as at College Now at the City University of New York (CUNY).Add and Subtract is made up of three parts. Part I is titled “What We Know About Dual Enrollment Programs,” and describes how widespread participation in dual enrollment is, what kinds of academic profiles are common in participants, and whether dual-enrolled students get credentialed more quickly or with greater success than their similar peers. Part II is titled “What We Know about Policies: Guidelines for States Using Dual Enrollment as a Pipeline Improve Strategy. Part III is “Case Studies: Dual Enrollment Policies in Action.”
Hoffman, N., & Vargas, J. (2005, January). Integrating grades 9 through 14: State policies to support and sustain early college high schools. Boston: Jobs for the Future.
Information for this report was gathered to offer policy recommendations for states wishing to start early college high schools. Hoffman and Vargas identify six major areas for policy change:
Each recommendation is described in depth, with case study examples.
- Dual enrollment/dual credit
- Eligibility for college courses - how are students determined to be eligible for dual credit courses?
- Transfer agreements between secondary and postsecondary institutions
- Teacher certification - faculty teaching in the high school
- Merging secondary and postsecondary funding
- Autonomy - key autonomies include hiring, curriculum, budget
Hughes, K. L., Karp, M. M., Fermin, B. J., & Bailey, T. R. (2005). Pathways to college: Access and Success. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education.
This report considers the ways credit-based transition programs (CBTPs) may help middle- and low-achieving students enter and succeed in college. Data for the report came from case studies of five different CBTPs already in use. The five case studies were conducted at high schools in California, Iowa, Minnesota, New York City, and Texas. Findings from the case studies were used to describe the practices and programs that accommodate a broad range of students, identify the programmatic characteristics that support middle and low-achieving students in college, and explore the ways CBTPs may support middle and low-achieving students in the transition from high school to college.The report recommends that program administrators encourage broad access to CBTPs and work with researchers to collect outcomes data. The authors also recommend that researchers confirm the relationship between program features and intermediate outcomes and that they investigate the long-term outcomes of CBTPs.
Kleiner, B., & Lewis, L. (2005). Dual enrollment of high school students at postsecondary institutions, 2002-03. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics.
This study was conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics. The report reflects information gathered from 1,600 Title IV degree-granting postsecondary institutions. Information for this report was collected using the Postsecondary Education Quick Information System. The main purpose of this report is to present national estimates on dual enrollment programs according to institution characteristics. The institution characteristics considered are institution type (public 2-year, private 2-year, public 4-year, and private 4-year) and size of institution (small, defined as less than 3,000 students; medium, or 3,000 to 9,999 students; and large, or 10,000 or more students).The survey focused on the prevalence of and enrollment in dual enrollment programs and college-level courses outside of dual enrollment programs; the characteristics of dual enrollment programs and courses, such as location, instructors, curriculum, eligibility requirements, and funding; and dual enrollment programs specifically geared toward students at risk of education failure.Ninety-eight percent of public 2-year institutions had high school students taking courses for college credit during the 2002-2003 academic school year, compared to 77% of public 4-year institutions. Small institutions had fewer high school students taking dual enrollment courses compared to medium- and large-sized institutions. Among institutions with dual enrollment programs, 48% of them had high school students enrolled in one academic course per semester.
Nathan, J., Accomando, L., & Fitzpatrick, D. H. (2005). Stretching minds and resources: 20 years of postsecondary enrollment options in Minnesota. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Center for School Change, Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs.
This study was conducted by the University of Minnesota to evaluate the twenty-year existence of Minnesota’s dual enrollment opportunities for high school students. Most students were very satisfied with their experiences with postsecondary enrollment option (PSEO) courses, with many students indicating they would make the same decision again. PSEO courses also enjoy strong support from the residents of Minnesota. The study found that these courses help prepare students academically for college. The study’s recommendations for continued success are to create partnerships to provide families with more information about PSEO courses; remind district and school officials about PSEO requirements; provide more space and more flexible admissions for PSEO students; study experiences of students enrolled in PSEO, AP, and IB courses to share with potential PSEO students and families; and encourage more students to participate in dual enrollment courses, including PSEO, AP, and IB.
Robinson, N. M., & Davidson Institute Team. (2005). A guidebook for investigating early college entrance. Reno, NV: Davidson Institute for Talent Development.
This guidebook is geared toward students who may be considering early entrance to college. Early in the book, the focus is on self-assessment and self-exploration. Then, the book presents advantages and disadvantages of early entrance, as well as alternatives. The remainder of the book looks much like a typical "entering college" guidebook, with information on selecting a college, financial aid, and timelines.
The full guide can be found here.
Barnett, E., Gardner, D., & Bragg, D. (2004). Dual credit in Illinois: Making it work. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Office of Community College Research and Leadership.
Barnett, Gardner, and Bragg identify key decisions that affect student participation in dual credit courses in the state of Illinois:
Student participation in dual credit programs was originally intended to serve the needs of advanced high school students. However, in recent years the benefits of dual credit programs to ease drop-out rates and college transition for “at-risk” students has also been documented.The report finds that there is no standard among and between high schools and post-secondary institutions in the way dual credit courses are taught, to whom they are taught, who teaches them, and whether or not the credits will be accepted as transfer credit.
- Program Approach,
- Organization and Funding,
- Course Delivery,
- Student Selection and Guidance,
- Faculty Selection and Supervision,
- Quality Assurance,
- Relationship with High Schools,
- Credit Award and Transfer,
- Marketing and Public Information, and
- Monitoring and Evaluation.
Chmelynski, C. (2004). "Early college" high school jump-starts higher learning. Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 69(7), 57-60.
The author explores high schools that work with local colleges to allow students to simultaneously pursue two-year college degrees and a high school diploma. Most of the schools highlighted in this article have received funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Some prospective students for these programs are highly motivated students looking for acceleration, while others are at-risk students or dropouts. The schools create individualized programs that allow students to pursue areas of interest while completing the credits necessary to graduate from high school.
Students in these particular early college programs receive individual counseling and support and often attend tuition-free. Some programs offer students free transportation, use of a laptop, and/or textbooks. By providing more support and removing financial barriers to college, the Gates Foundation hopes to increase the percentage of low-income students who attend college.
The Gates Foundation has sponsored twenty-four new early college high schools and has plans to support over 150 schools around the country (as of 2004). The schools are generally located on or near college campuses, which gives students access to all of the colleges’ facilities. Admission into the programs varies by institution. Some require transcripts and interviews, others have residency requirements, and one featured program uses a lottery to admit students from over forty-five school districts. Most of the programs have around a ninety percent completion rate with a high percentage staying in college to continue their studies.
Florida Department of Education. (2004, March). Dual enrollment students are more likely to enroll in postsecondary education (Fast Fact #79). Tallahassee, FL: Author.
The Florida Department of Education studied enrollment data from the 2001-2002 academic year about students participating in dual enrollment programs. The report found that students who dual enrolled in high school were more likely to attend a college or university than their counterparts who did not dual enroll. This effect is especially pronounced among black and Hispanic students. Similarly, students enrolling in dual enrollment courses attended a college or university at a higher rate compared to students only enrolling in AP or IB programs during their high school careers.
Bailey, T., & Karp, M. M. (2003). Promoting college access and success: A review of credit-based transition programs. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education.
Bailey and Karp address the following questions about the emergence of college level courses offered to high school students: How large are these programs [college courses in high schools]? What are their characteristics? Who are the students? Do the programs effectively increase college access and success? The analysis discussed in the report was based on a review of available literature (published and unpublished) from 1990 to 2003, as well as personal interviews with state and college-level personnel and researchers.The discussion categorizes the types of credit-based transition programs into three distinct groups: Singleton Programs (such as Advanced Placement), Comprehensive Programs (such as International Baccalaureate program), and Enhanced Comprehensive Programs. Bailey and Karp are particularly interested in evaluating the three categories of credit-based transition programs as they related to college success for students who would not typically attend college.
Botstein, L. (2003). Bard High School Early College. Peer Review, 5(2), 17-19.
Leon Botstein, Bard College and Simon’s Rock College of Bard’s president, describes the purpose and importance of Bard High School Early College (BHSEC), the nation’s only four-year liberal arts and sciences college specifically designed to allow highly motivated students to begin college after tenth or eleventh grade. BHSEC is a public school that opened in the fall of 2001 in Greenpoint, Brooklyn in New York. It is currently located in Manhattan. Students who complete BHSEC’s program receive an associate’s degree in liberal arts and sciences as well as a high school diploma. The school sets high standards for its students and emphasizes the importance of intellectual curiosity and personal motivation. Botstein contends that programs such as the Advanced Placement (AP) Program have low standards and do not meet students’ needs in part because of their focus on a single test at the end of the year. The faculty at BHSEC are Ph.D.s and teach classes in their field of interest. In Botstein’s experience, these faculty members tend to have an enthusiasm for their material that is absent in many AP classes.
Hoffman, N. (2003). College credit in high school: Increasing college attainment rates for underrepresented students. Change, 35, 42-48.
Hoffman summarizes advances in secondary education as they relate to increased enrollment and success in college. She focuses on the use of AP courses in particular. The article highlights a variety of research showing that enrollment in more difficult classes in high school translates to greater success in college. This is especially true for minority students. Though the use of AP has been researched, Hoffman advocates for more research of dual enrollment as a predictor of college success. Specifically, she proposes three areas for further research:
- Continue studying dual enrollment students to confirm that they earn higher grades in college than those who have not participated in a dual enrollment program.
- Determine whether there is equity of access to dual enrollment.
- Identify specific obstacles to implementing educational options that span the border between high school and college.
Muratori, M., Colangelo, N., & Assouline, S. (2003). Early-entrance students: Impressions of their first semester of college. Gifted Child Quarterly, 47(3), 219-238.
Muratori, Colangelo, and Assouline conducted a qualitative research study with the purpose of identifying the academic, social, family, and transitional issues that early entrance students to the University of Iowa faced during the first year of the National Academy of Arts, Science, and Engineering (NAASE) program at the University of Iowa. Data collected for this study consisted of phone interviews, document collection, and observations. Ten students were included in this study. The research questions for consideration were:
The study also included students’ feelings of homesickness and missed relationships, particularly with a boyfriend/girlfriend or close family member. While most of the students in the study decided to stay the University of Iowa, the students who either transferred to another school or went back to high school did so to be closer to home and other friends. Recommendations by the authors for other early entrance program administrators include helping students think about all aspects of the school in which they are enrolling (size of school, offering of courses, location from home) and providing early-entrance students with strong support networks.
- 1. How well did the NAASE students make the transition from high school to the University of Iowa?
- 2. What are the NAASE students’ academic experiences during their first semester?
- 3. What were the NAASE students’ social experiences during their first semester?
- 4. How were family relationships affected by the students’ early entrance to college?
- 5. What high school experiences did the NAASE students perceive they might have missed due to entering college early?
- 6. If the students could make the choice all over again, would they participate in the NAASE program?
Porter, R. M. (2003). A study of students attending Tennessee Board of Regents Universities who participated in high school dual enrollment programs. Ed.D. dissertation, East Tennessee State University. Retrieved June 9, 2008, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. (Publication No. AAT 3083438).
The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between college retention and completion and the number of college credit hours students earn before graduating from high school. The number of credit hours a student earned was analyzed along with selected demographic characteristics and academic performance indicators to determine if ant one of the variables was more of a predictor of retention and completion of college than others.
Caplan, S. M., Henderson, C. E., Henderson, J., & Fleming, D. L. (2002). Socioemotional factors contributing to adjustment among early-entrance college students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 46(2), 124-134.
This study explored the role of self-concept and family environment variables in the psychosocial adjustment and academic achievement of 180 students (104 male, 76 female) at the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science (TAMS), a residential early-entrance to college program in which students complete their junior and senior years of high school while earning 60 hours of college credit. To explore the psychosocial adjustment of TAMS students, the researchers administered the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale as a composite measure of self-concept, the Family Environment Scale to assess perceptions of family environment, and the Student Adjustment to College Questionnaire (SACQ). First-semester GPA was the measure of academic achievement. The results supported the hypothesis that adjustment to college and academic achievement may be predicted by a combination of family environment factors and overall self-concept. Specifically, adjustment to college (as measured by the SACQ) was predicted by overall self-concept and the Family Environment factors of family cohesion, conflict, and expressiveness. Academic achievement (first-semester GPA) was predicted by overall self-concept and the Family Environment factors of family cohesion, organization, control, and conflict. While the authors stipulated that their findings might not be generalizable to other early-entrance to college programs, they suggested that measures of self-concept and family environment might provide useful information for early entrance programs. Programs might increase retention, support adjustment, and encourage academic achievement if they inform students and families about the role of family and self-concept factors.
Olszewski-Kubilius, P. (2002). A summary of research regarding early entrance to college. Roeper Review, 24(3), 152-157.
This reprint of an article on how students who enter college early perform academically and socially is preceded by a commentary that discusses the need to provide gifted students with the option of entering college early because of the lack of college-level courses at the high school level.
Spurling, S., & Gabriner, R. (2002). The effect of concurrent enrollment programs upon student success at City College of San Francisco: Findings. City College of San Francisco, Office of Research, Planning and Grants.
This is a study comparing concurrent enrollment students at City College of San Francisco (CCSF) who went on to matriculate at CCSF, with first-time students a CCSF who graduated from the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) high schools. The researchers asked the question: Did SFUSD students with concurrent enrollment experience perform better after matriculating at CCSF than first time entering SFUSD graduates who did not have prior experience at CCSF?
Hugo, E. B. (2001). Dual enrollment for underrepresented student populations. New Directions for Community Colleges, 113, 67-72.
Hugo describes the dual enrollment arrangement between Santa Monica College (SMC) and high schools in the Los Angeles area. The program began in 1998, and findings from this report span the first six semesters of the program.Hugo identifies three main strengths of the program between SMC and local high schools. First, high schools are able to offer more advanced courses taught by SMC faculty, which is especially positive in light of the widely-documented relationship between more rigorous high school coursework and college success. Second, students in more challenging classes gain what Hugo calls an “orientation to higher education.” Finally, undocumented students are able to enroll in college-level courses, an opportunity they would not otherwise have.
Sethna, B. N., Wilkinstrom, C. D., Boothe, D., & Stanley, J.C. (2001). The Advanced Academy of Georgia: Four years as a residential early-entrance college program. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 13(1), 11-21.
This study discusses goals and objectives of the Advanced Academy of Georgia at the State University of West Georgia, a residential early-college-entrance program for gifted juniors and seniors. Included is a comprehensive progress report, entering SAT scores, student academic performance, retention rates, and scores on the Dimensions of Self-Concept. (Contains references.)
Boothe, D., Sethna, B. N., Stanley, J. C., & Colgate, S. D. (1999). Special opportunities for exceptionally able high school students: A description of eight residential early-college-entrance programs. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 10(4), 195-202.
Describes eight innovative four-year and two-year residential college programs that allow exceptionally able high school students early entrance to college. Programs are compared in terms of admission requirements, tuition, curricula, residential components and requirements, enrichment and leadership activities, gender restriction, and grade of entry.
Noble, K. D., Arndt, T., Nicholson, T., Sletten, T., & Zamora, A. (1999). Different strokes: Perceptions of social and emotional development among early college entrants. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 10(2), 77-84.
Describes an early-entrance program that enables gifted adolescents to enter college without attending high school. A study involving 31 participants indicated varying degrees of comfort in diverse social situations; however, all believed themselves to be more mature than had they gone to high school.
Olszewski-Kubilius, P. (1999). Thinking through early entrance to college. Retrieved September 27, 2010, from Northwestern University, Centre for Talent Development website: http://davidsongifted.org/db/Articles_id_10096.aspx.
Olszewski-Kubilius provides food for thought for parents and students considering early entrance to college. Among questions that should be considered are:
Resources are also provided for students deciding not to enter college early, but still needing an additional academic challenge while in high school.
- How do early entrance students fare academically?
- How do early entrance students fare socially and emotionally?
- Do early entrants regret leaving high school early?
- What happens to early entrants after they finish college?
- Who should consider early entrance to college?
Olszewski-Kubilius, P. (1998). Early entrance to college: Students' stories. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 10(1), 226-247.
Presents essays that describe the fears, anxieties, hopes, problems, and triumphs of 11 students who chose to go to college early. Difficulties faced included initial academic failures due to immaturity and a lack of well-developed study skills; however, overall achievement was high and the experience was perceived as positive.
Reisberg, L. (1998). Child prodigies find a home on campuses. Chronicle of Higher Education, 45(17), A35-A36.
Early-entrance programs for academically gifted students aged 10 to 14 are offered at a number of colleges and universities. Admissions officials and experts on gifted children worry that some students are not mature enough, that their social development will suffer, and that they will experience social isolation. Highly selective colleges may be reluctant to accept the students despite their abilities.
Boothe, D., Sethna, B. N., & Stanley, J. C. (1996). The Advanced Academy of Georgia: A unique collaboration of high school with college. National Consortium of Specialized Secondary Schools of Mathematics, Science and Technology Journal, 2(2), 3-6.
Describes a unique model that provides challenging collegiate opportunities for academically talented high school juniors and seniors. The program is residential and students are enrolled in regular college coursework.
Robinson, N. M. (1996). Acceleration as an option for the highly gifted adolescent. In C. P. Benbow & D. J. Lubinski (Eds.), Intellectual talent: Psychometric and social issues (pp. 169-178). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Discusses a highly successful program of radical acceleration at the University of Washington, where 14-yr olds and under are given the opportunity to enter college through the Early Entrance Program.
Noble, K. D., & Smyth, R. K. (1995). Keeping their talents alive: Young women's assessment of radical, post-secondary acceleration. Roeper Review, 18(1), 49-55.
Twenty-seven of the 30 young women who had participated in the University of Washington’s Early Entrance Program completed a 25-question survey for this study. The survey was a combination of both Likert scale and free response items. The items on the survey sought to elicit information about why these students selected early entrance to college, whether their gender played a role in their decision, how their attitudes and the attitudes of others were affected by participation in the program, and what kinds of experiences with sexism they had throughout their schooling.
The results of the survey indicated that the respondents perceived slight favoritism toward male students from their professors. Parents were mostly supportive of the decision for students to enter college early (although mothers were less supportive than fathers). The most frequent problem described by survey respondents was young women dating college-aged men.
Fisher, M. A. (1994). Problem solved. Currents, 20(7), 56-60.
The creative solutions found by four colleges and universities to specific student recruitment dilemmas are described. Two dilemmas involved clarification of the campus' geographic location, one addressed recruitment of minority group engineering students, and the fourth concerned recruitment of exceptionally gifted 13- to 16-year-old girls to an accelerated program.
Lupkowski, A. E, Whitmore, M., & Ramsay, A. (1992). The impact of early entrance to college on self-esteem: A preliminary study. Gifted Child Quarterly, 36(2), 87-90.
Lupkowski, Whitmore, and Ramsey conducted this study as a follow up to the Janos, Robinson, Lunneborg (1989) study of students’ psychological adjustment to early entrance to college. Specifically, this study investigated whether early entrants’ self-esteem changed significantly during their first semester in the program and whether early entrants’ self-esteem differed significantly from that of comparison groups.A total of 190 students participated in the study during the fall of 1990. Students took the Adult form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (1990) before starting the fall semester and took the same survey again the following fall. Results of the study showed self-esteem of early entrants dropped significantly in comparison to their college freshman counterparts. The authors of this study hypothesize that this could be due to the new academic challenges students face when first entering college.
Noble, K. D., & Drummond, J. E. (1992). But what about the prom? Students' perceptions of early college entrance. Gifted Child Quarterly, 36(2), 106-111.
This study interviewed students (n=24) participating in the University of Washington's Early Entrance Program. Students were unanimous in their satisfaction with their choice to forego major high school social events and found attitudes toward them sometimes annoying.
Robinson, N. M., & Noble, K. D. (1992). Acceleration: Valuable high school to college options. Gifted Child Today, 15(2), 20-23.
A variety of accelerative options for gifted high school students is described, including part-time college programs and full-time early entrance programs. The University of Washington's Transition School and Early Entrance Program is presented as an option for teenagers to enter university without attending high school at all.
Robinson, N., & Noble, K. (1992). Acceleration: Valuable high school to college option. Gifted Child Today, 15(2), 20-23.
This article by Nancy Robinson and Kathleen Noble provides some practical part-time acceleration options, as well as full-time acceleration options, and introduces the University of Washington's Transition School and Early Entrance Program. Not accelerating a gifted child causes them to abandon the intellectual pursuit and become at-risk for difficulties. Two options for acceleration are the High School Baccalaureate programs and specialized schools. (From Davidson Gifted.)
Sayler, M. F. (1992). Early college entrance for gifted high school students: Experiences and guidelines. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Council for Exceptional Children, Baltimore, MD.
This paper on early college entrance for gifted high-school students considers the advantages of early college entrance, the willingness of colleges and universities to accept early entrants, special programs developed to assist early entrants, and potential difficulties with early entrance. Guidelines are presented for maximizing the chances of success for students considering early entrance to college. These guidelines include such suggestions as having the student attend a college-sponsored academic summer program, avoid excessive publicity about the early entrance decision, develop good personal organizational skills, and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of commuting versus living on campus. The paper concludes that early entrance to college has been a successful experience for many students for many years.
Cornell, D. G., Callahan, C. M., & Loyd, B. H. (1991). Personality growth of female early college entrants: A controlled, prospective study. Gifted Child Quarterly, 35(3), 135-143.
Cornell, Callahan, and Loyd follow 33 female students admitted to a college early entrance program. Participants completed the California Psychological Inventory at the beginning and end of the school year. The results of the inventory are analyzed using t-tests. The t-tests compare the results of the pre- and post-tests and compare the early entrants’ results to those of a control group of similarly gifted students who were not enrolled in the early entrance program.The authors studied how accelerants compare to non-accelerants, how accelerants change over the course of their first year, and how changes in accelerants compare to changes in non-accelerants. The results of the t-tests showed that non-accelerants scored higher in the self-acceptance category, but accelerants scored higher in responsibility, self-control, and good impression. Accelerants scored significantly higher in 14 of the 20 personality categories from the beginning to the end of the school year.
Stanley, J. C. (1991). A better model for residential high schools for talented youths. Phi Delta Kappan, 72(6), 471-473.
Describes the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science, a residential school for youths talented in mathematics and science. TAMS students, who come as eleventh graders, take only regular college courses taught by university faculty members. They complete the last two years of high school and the first two years of college in just two academic years.
Brody, L. E., Assouline, S., & Stanley, J. (1990). Five years of early entrants: Predicting successful achievement in college. Gifted Child Quarterly, 34(4), 138-142.
This study evaluated the achievements of 65 young entrants as beginning undergraduates in a highly selective university. The group as a whole was found to be quite successful. Compared to non-accelerants, the early entrants tended to graduate in a shorter period of time and earn more honors at graduation. For the early entrants, starting college with a large number of Advanced Placement Program credits was found to be the best predictor of outstanding academic achievement. It seems advisable for young college entrants to have Scholastic Aptitude Test scores and content knowledge equal to or greater than that of the typical freshman at the college the student will attend.
Janos, P. M., et al. (1989). Markedly early entrance to college: A multi-year comparative study of academic performance and psychological adjustment. Journal of Higher Education, 60(5), 495-518.
Certain highly able and motivated young adolescents can successfully pursue full-time college-level studies without unreasonable compromises to psychological and social adjustment. Ways in which an adequate program facilitating early college entrance might be structured are suggested.
Kearney, K. (1989). The highly gifted: The early college option. Understanding Our Gifted, 2(2), 13.
This article discusses the issues surrounding the early college decision, part-time or full-time, for exceptionally and profoundly gifted children who are of elementary, middle school, or secondary age. It is actually the collection of a series of short advice articles. Tips for parents and students are included.
The article can be found here.
Peterson, N. M., et al. (1988). Evaluation of college level coursework for the gifted adolescents: An investigation of epistemological stance, knowledge gain, and generalization. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 12(1), 46-61.
A college-level introductory psychology course was completed by gifted adolescents. Post-course and remote-post-course measures for the 100 participants and controls demonstrated that knowledge gain from course participation was substantial and long-lived, affecting the quality of the students' understanding, their ability to generalize and apply psychological concepts, and their epistemological stance.
Brody, L. E., Lupkowski, A., & Stanley, J. C. (1988). Early entrance to college: A study of academic and social adjustment during the freshman year. College & University, 63(4), 347-359.
A study investigated the freshman year experience of exceptionally able students entering colleges at least two years early. Academic achievement and social adjustment were considered in relation to college type, student residence at home or away from home, degree and beginning of academic acceleration, and student adjustment mechanisms.
Janos, P. M., Robinson, N. M., Carter, C., Chapel, A., Cufley, R., Curland, M., et al. (1988). A cross-sectional developmental study of the social relations of students who enter college early. Gifted Child Quarterly, 32(1), 210-215.
This study considered survey results from 63 subjects involved in the Early Entrance Program (EEP) at Washington State College between 1977 and 1985. The hypotheses for the study were that participants in EEP would self-report a strong attachment with each other, that early entrants would develop friendships with older classmates as they progressed toward college graduation, and that females be integrated into the interpersonal world of the university earlier than males.Authors analyzed the survey results using a Group by Sex ANOVA test and paired t-tests. Results of these analyses showed that the majority of EEP participants spent many hours per week with other participants, staying close to their agemates at the university. In the beginning of the third year of college, EEP students were more likely to develop friendships with other college-aged students in their major area of study. Finally, although there were differences between male and female experiences with agemate relationships, this area requires further study.
Janos, P. M., Robinson, N. M., Carter, C., Chapel, A., Cufley, R., Curland, M., et al. (1988). Social relations of students who enter college early. Gifted Child Quarterly, 32, 210-2l5.
Students (n=63) who entered college by age 14 supplied data on the number and ages of friends, time spent together, and degree of shared intimacy. By junior year, early entrants appeared to have established relations with older students of breadth and depth equivalent to those already existing with age mates.
Gregory, E. H., & Stevens-Long, J. (1986). Coping skills among highly gifted adolescents. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 9(2), 147-155.
The Early Entrance Program at California State University, Los
Angeles, provides the opportunity for full-time college study to young
adolescents. This paper outlines some of the most consistent problems these
children experience and the kinds of coping skills they have learned to use in
adjusting to the college setting. Suggestions are made for the use of the 5
case studies presented (of 10–14 yr olds) by those who counsel the gifted young
students. Most often, problems involve the degree of detail and accuracy
required on college-level examinations, the level of detail and
comprehensiveness required for reading and taking notes in lectures, effective
time management, and the propriety of approaching a professor to clarify
expectations or consult about grading procedures.
Gregory, E., & March, E. (1985). Early entrance program at the California State University, Los Angeles. Gifted Child Quarterly, 29(2), 83-86.
The Early Entrance Program at California State University, Los Angeles, has successfully met the needs of some highly gifted 11-1-year-olds. The rationale for the program, its stages of development, and some case histories are described. It is suggested that this model can be adapted for use at other campuses without great cost either to the institution or the student.
Benbow, C. P. & Stanley, J. C. (1983). Constructing educational bridges between high school and college. Gifted Child Quarterly, 27(3), 111-113.
To offset low challenge in high school courses, the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth encourages intellectually talented students to choose from seven alternative acceleration options. Also offered are four reasons for taking college credit courses in high school.
Robinson, H. (1983). A case for radical acceleration to college. In C. P. Benbow & J. C. Stanley (Eds.), Academic precocity: Aspects of its development. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Common arguments for and against accelerated pacing are presented. The conclusion is reached that educational programs must be adapted to fit the needs of the intellectually talented student. SMPY at The Johns Hopkins University and the Child Development Research Group at the University of Washington, both of which espouse curricular flexibility and emphasize radical acceleration, are described and exemplified by individual case studies. The description of the Washington program stresses the Radical Acceleration Group of the Early Entrance Program (EEP). This aspect of the program involves early entrance to the University of Washington for those students 14 years old and under, not yet in the tenth grade, who score better than college freshmen on the Washington Pre-College Test. Providing a structured support system, the program aids in the transition from junior-high to college-level work. Although some problems have been encountered, overall the students have made satisfactory academic and social progress in college.
Stanley, J. C., & Benbow, C. P. (1983). Extremely young college graduates: Evidence of their success. College and University, 58(4), 361-371.
Students, it is argued, who have used combinations of entering college early and forging ahead fast in the curriculum have led or are leading highly effective lives. Parents and educators should have less fear when attempting to accelerate a child.
Karnes, F. A., & Chauvin, J. (1982). Almost everything that parents and teachers of gifted secondary school students should know about early college enrollment and college credit by examination. Gifted Child Today, 24, 39-42.
Acceleration approaches for gifted secondary students are described in terms of dual enrollment (attending a postsecondary institution on a part-time basis), early admission, or participation in the College Level Examination Program or the International Baccalaureate Program.
Karnes, F. A., & Chauvin, J. C. (1982). A survey of early admission policies for younger than average students: Implications for gifted youth. Gifted Child Quarterly, 26(2), 68-73.
Karnes and Chauvin conducted this study to address parents’, educators’, and gifted students’ need for information about opportunities for early entrance to college. A total of 92 private and 98 public institutions responded to survey questions. All data in this study were collected during the 1980-1981 school year. Over 66% of the institutions reported having an early admissions policy, although very few institutions reported having an admissions counselor specifically for early admissions. The criteria for early admissions included a minimum age for applicants, ACT score, SAT score, grade point average, and recommendations from the student’s high school. Scholarships that were available to early entrants were the same scholarships available to all students on campus.
Glass, L. W. (1979). A cooperative university-high school project for talented students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 23(3), 532-537.
The article describes an Iowa State University summer project for gifted and talented high school juniors, which encompassed aspects of both the enrichment and acceleration models. Students were chosen on the basis of laboratory investigations into selected energy problems.
Laycock, F. (1979). College programs for the gifted. Roeper Review, 2(1), 10-14.
College practices such as acceleration, grouping, and enrichment are discussed regarding their effect on gifted students. Also considered are opening classes to high school students, conducting recruitment and remedial programs for minority students, and offering cross-disciplinary courses and majors.
Shaw, J. S. (1974). Speeded-up, souped-up and skip-a-year programs get kids into -- and out of -- college sooner. Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1(2), 35-42.
Thousands of average students will be speeding up their educational progress in the years ahead as high schools and colleges find new ways for students to go through the educational system faster than ever before. Recognizing wasteful overlap in the last year or two of high school and the first year or two of college, schools are meshing these years together or eliminating them entirely -- to create time-shortened degree programs that suit today's student population.
Fund for the Advancement of Education of the Ford Foundation. (1957). They went to college early. New York, NY: Research Division of the Fund.
This report is available here.